"Beach Shack" Tropical Construction Page

South American Hardwoods

TREE AND WOOD CHARACTERISTICS

Alexa imperatricis

Haiari

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Haiariballi (Guyana).

Distribution: Found in the Venezuelan Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, and the Brazilian Amazon region. Often dominant on the light-colored sands of the northwest and upper Mozaruni district and the Pakaraima Mountains in Guyana.

The Tree

Unbuttressed, well formed, with small oval crowns. Grows to 36 in. in diameter and 100 ft high on favorable sites, but are usually 20 to 24 in. in diameter and less than 100 ft high. The bole is cylindrical and often 70 ft long.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood brownish yellow but occasionally somewhat darker; not sharply differentiated from the light yellow to grayish-yellow sapwood, 3 to 4 in. wide. Luster is medium to low; generally straight grained; rather coarse textured; odorless and tasteless when dry.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) reported to be 0.46 to 0.55 in Guyana; 0.41 in the Venezuelan Guiana. Air-dry density about 32 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (1-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (24) 10,590 1,580 5,620

Janka side hardness is 690 lb and the Forest Products Laboratory toughness is 118 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Lumber has a marked tendency to collapse during seasoning. Close piling for air-drying and the use of high humidities and low temperatures during the early stages of kiln-drying are suggested. Veneers are slow to dry. Jet-drying of 1/16-in. veneer at 285 °F resulted in buckling, collapse, and splitting. Kiln schedule T2-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T2-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.0%; tangential 8.5%; volumetric 11.7%. Movement of seasoned wood is classified as large.

Working Properties: Haiari is reported to work easily and finish satisfactorily. Nail withdrawal resistance is higher than would be expected from its density. Rotary cutting trials of 1/16-in. veneer gave smooth surfaces and uniform thickness; rough cutting occurred in 1/8-in. veneer. Reported to have rather unfavorable gluing properties when made into plywood.

Durability: Reported to be highly resistant to decay, but freshly cut logs are very susceptible to damage by pin-hole borers.

Preservation: Both sapwood and heartwood very easy to treat. Absorptions over 9 pcf with uniform penetration obtainable by hot and cold bath as well as pressure- vacuum systems.

Uses: Haiari is suitable for interior construction, boxes, crating, general construction, plywood, and other uses requiring an easily worked wood of moderate strength.

Additional Reading (24), (46), (60)

Amburana cearensis syn. A. acreana

Amburana Ishpingo

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Amburana, Cerejeira, Cumarè, Cumarú (Brazil), Palo trèbol, Robe del pais (Argentina), Ishpingo (Peru).

Distribution: Widely distributed in the dry regions of Brazil and northern Argentina. In Peru found in the tropical dry regions of the Húanuco Department on deep well-drained soils.

The Tree

Over 100 ft in height and 2 to 3 ft in diameter, sometimes to 5 ft; boles are cylindrical but with flutes to 3 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellowish or light brown with a slight orange hue, darkening somewhat on exposure, not sharply demarcated from sapwood. Texture medium to coarse; luster medium to high; grain interlocked and irregular; with mild to distinct scent and taste of cumarin or vanilla; rather waxy appearance and feel.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) averages about 0.55; 0.43 reported from Peru. Air-dry density range about 38 to 47 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard, second set the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

14%(2) 10,715 1,363 6,100

Green (30) 9,880 1,343 4,670 15% 12,820 6,860

Dry Janka side hardness 790 lb; air-dry Amsler toughness 154 in.-lb (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to be easy to dry though sometimes with fine end- checking. No dry kiln schedule data available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.3 to 3.0%; tangential 4.1 to 5.8%; volumetric 7.6 to 8.4%.

Working Properties: Easy to work with machine or hand tools, some difficulty in planing due to the interlocked grain. Reported to saw woolly when cut green.

Durability: Reported to have good resistance to attack by decay fungi and insects.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Construction, furniture, decorative veneers, and other applications requiring an attractive and dimensionally stable wood.

Additional Reading (2), (30), (36), (56)

Anacardium excelsum

Espave

Family: Anacardiaceae

Other Common Names: Espavel (Nicaragua), Caracoli (Venezuela, Colombia), Cajú assú, Cajú da matta (Brazil), Marañón (Ecuador).

Distribution: Costa Rica south through Panama to Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Frequently found in coastal areas on well-drained soils. Almost pure stands reported in the Darièn Province of Panama.

The Tree

Commonly attains diameters of 3 to 5 ft, total height frequently ranges from 75 to 150 ft. Forest-grown trees often have clear boles 30 to 60 ft. Some basal swelling but no well- developed buttress.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood on exposure becomes a fairly uniform russet brown with a golden or reddish cast; sapwood is 6 to 10 in. thick, grayish white with more or less pinkish tinge, sharply demarcated from heartwood. Wood has a fairly high luster and is attractively marked by prominent vessel lines; medium to coarse textured and typically has an interlocked grain with a pronounced stripe. Distinctive odor and taste are lacking.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.41; air-dry density 30 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 5,320 1,060 2,460 12% 7,960 1,280 4,530

Janka side hardness 400 lb green and 470 lb for air-dry wood. Forest Products Laboratory toughness is 57 in.-lb average for green and air-dry material (5/8- in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Espavè is described as moderately difficult to air-dry. It has a somewhat variable drying rate, and pieces that dry quickly tend to warp and check. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and schedule T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.8%; tangential 5.2%; volumetric 8.4%.

Working Properties: Espavè is rated poor in planing and sanding properties, good in shaping and mortising, and fair in turning and boring. Chipped grain and fuzzy surfaces are the most common machining defects. A silica content of only 0.09% is reported.

Durability: Laboratory tests indicate the heartwood is durable upon exposure to both white-rot and brown-rot fungi. Other evaluations have indicated the wood is vulnerable to attack by fungi and insects. The wood has been classified as resistant to dry-wood termite attack.

Preservation: Though heartwood penetration is irregular, absorptions of 8 pcf have been obtained using pressure-vacuum treatments in Venezuela. Wood from Panama is considered very difficult to preserve though complete penetration was observed in the sapwood.

Uses: General construction both interior and exterior (heartwood) has been suggested. Furniture, veneer and plywood, boxes and crates, and pulp and paper products have also been recommended.

Additional Reading (44), (56), (71), (74)

Anadenanthera macrocarpa syn. Piptadenia macrocarpa

Curupay

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Angico preto (Brazil), Cebil, Cebil colorado (Argentina), Curupay-atá (Paraguay).

Distribution: Has a wide distribution in Argentina and is also found in the subtropical and dry forests of Brazil and Paraguay.

The Tree

A medium-sized tree reaching a height of 80 ft with trunk diameters 2 to 3 ft; boles are straight and clear and will yield logs up to 24 ft in length.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood pale brown, darkening on exposure to reddish brown with darker colored, almost black, streaks; sapwood yellow brown or light pink. Texture fine and uniform; grain usually irregular and interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.86; air-dry density 66 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (30) 22,200 2,370 10,100 15% 26,900 12,600

12% (42) 29,290 2,595 14,100

Janka side hardness 3,840 lb. Amsler toughness 680 in.-lb at 15% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Dries slowly with little warp but does tend to check and split in kiln- drying, particularly in thicker dimensions. Kiln schedule T8-B3 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T5-B1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.6%; tangential 7.6%; volumetric 12.0%. Movement in service is rated as medium.

Working Properties: The timber is difficult to work on account of its hardness, severe blunting effect on cutting edges. In planning a cutting angle of 10 to 15 degrees is suggested to prevent tearing of irregular grain.

Durability: Heartwood is rated as very durable.

Preservation: Extremely resistant to preservative treatments.

Uses: Used for heavy exterior construction and marine work, flooring, railroad crossties, tool handles, turnery. The bark is extracted for its tannin. Additional Reading (22), (30), (42), (69)

Andira inermis

Angelin Partridge Wood

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Moca (Puerto Rico, Cuba), Cuilimbuco, Maquilla (Mexico), Barbosquillo, Arenillo (Panama), Rode kabbes (Surinam), Acapúrana (Brazil).

Distribution: Occurs throughout the West Indies and from southern Mexico through Central America to northern South America and Brazil. In most locations the tree will grow under varying rainfall and soil conditions.

The Tree

Evergreen, unbuttressed, moderate-sized trees; diameters of 20 to 28 in., heights of 90 to 120 ft, and clear boles 60 to 70 ft long are not uncommon.

The Wood

General Characteristics: The narrow sapwood is pale brown to grayish yellow and usually clearly demarcated from the yellowish-brown to dark reddish-brown heartwood. Bands of light colored parenchyma tissue give this wood a distinctive figure. Luster rather low; without distinctive odor or taste when dry; texture very coarse; grain only moderately irregular.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.64, air-dry density 45 to 80 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (44) 20,870 2,640

12% (24) 17,680 2,442 9,130

Janka side hardness about 1,600 lb air dry.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons at a moderate rate with little degrade. Sapwood, during early stages of drying, is susceptible to discoloration by sap-stain fungi. Movement of seasoned wood is rather low. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.6%; tangential 9.8%; volumetric 12.5%.

Working Properties: Angelin saws and works fairly well except that it is difficult to plane to a smooth surface because of the alternating bands of hard and soft (parenchyma) tissue. The wood works well in the lathe, holds nails and screws well, and glues satisfactorily. Polishes and varnishes well after filling.

Durability: Heartwood is resistant to attack by decay fungi and insects, but is only moderately resistant to dry-wood termites. Sapwood is highly vulnerable to power-post beetle attack.

Preservation: Heartwood difficult to treat by both hot and cold bath and pressure-vacuum systems. Absorptions are considerably less than 6 pcf with poor penetration. Permeability of sapwood is also low.

Uses: The wood is used locally for heavy construction, crossties, house framing, and exterior siding. Other suggested uses are turnery, furniture and cabinet work, parquet flooring, and decorative veneer.

Additional ReadIng (24), (44), (46), (72)

Aniba spp.

Louro

Family: Lauraceae

Other Common Names: Many species of the Lauraceae may be grouped here, but most are poorly defined botanically. Comino real (Colombia), Silverballi (Guayana), Moena amarilla (Peru), Coto (Bolivia), Louro rosa, Pau rosa (Brazil).

Distribution: Found throughout the Guianas and the Amazon region but also in the Pacific coastal areas of Colombia.

The Tree

Often attains a height of 100 ft with diameters up to 30 in.; clear bole lengths of 55 to 75 ft are obtained.

The Wood

General Characteristics: The woods are typically yellowish with a greenish hue when fresh, becoming brown or olive on exposure. Narrow sapwood light yellowish. Luster medium to high; grain straight to interlocked; texture fine to medium; spicy odor, taste may or may not be distinctive.

Weight: Woods range from rather light to moderately heavy. Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) often between 0.55 and 0.65. Air-dry density 40 to 50 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 13,250 2,170 6,560 12% 19,030 2,570 10,010

Janka side hardness 1,160 lb green and 1,470 lb dry. Forest Products Laboratory toughness 176 in.-lb, average for green and air-dry material (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Moderately difficult to air-season, dries at a moderate rate, warp and checking are slight. No kiln schedules available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.7%; tangential 7.0%; volumetric 12.1%.

Working Properties: Easy to work with hand and machine tools and dresses to a smooth surface to give a satiny sheen.

Durability: The timber has an excellent reputation for resistance to decay. Laboratory tests also indicate heartwood very durable to both white-rot and brown-rot fungi.

Preservation: No information available but heartwood is known for its high resistance to moisture absorption and is comparable to teak in this respect.

Uses: Esteemed for high grade furniture, turnery, inlay work. Also favored for boat building, durable construction, and millwork. The wood of Aniba rosaeodora is distilled for its fragrant oil used in the perfume industry.

Additional Reading (56), (71), (74)

Apeiba spp.

Duru

Family: Tiliaceae

Other Common Names: Peine de mico (Mexico), Burillo (Nicaragua), Corcho (Colombia), Cortezo (Panama), Alastioelan, Borredaballi (Surinam), Maqui-sapa (Peru), Cortica, Gargauba (Brazil).

Distribution: The genus has a wide range in tropical America with the center of distribution in northern South America; found in the West Indies, southern Mexico, Central America, and southward to Brazil and Peru.

The Tree

Small to medium-sized trees (A. tibourbou) or large canopy emergents to 120 ft (A. aspera).

The Wood

General Characteristics: Sapwood and heartwood pale brown to oatmeal color no distinction between them; texture medium to coarse; grain straight; not highly lustrous; no distinctive odor or taste. Wood has bands of soft cottony material that may be sporadic in occurrence.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) is very variable due to the irregular bands of soft tissue-0.12 to 0.27; air-dry density 9 to 21 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (44) 4,000 670

12% (21) 5,950 380 3,040

Janka side hardness about 250 lb for dry material.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is reported to be very easy to season with no drying defects. No kiln schedules available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.1%; tangential 6.3%; volumetric 7.8%.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work in all operations but due to the bands of soft tissue, dressed surfaces are rough. Silica content is reported to be 0.03%.

Durability: The wood is vulnerable to attack by decay fungi.

Preservation: Reported to be easy to impregnate.

Uses: The wood is used to make rafts along the eastern coast of Brazil. Suggested as an insulating material in Colombia.

Additional Reading (21), (24), (44)

Araucaria angustifolia

Paraná-Pine

Family: Araucariaceae

Other Common Names: Pinheiro do Paraná, Pinho brasileiro (Brazil), Pinheiro do Brasil, Pino blanco (Paraguay), Curiy, Pino Paraná (Argentina).

Distribution: Botanical distribution covers parts of Paraguay and Argentina and the Brazilian plateau region of Rio Grande do Sui, Santa Catharina, and Parana. Commercial exploitation has been centered in the State of Parana.

The Tree

The mature trees are from 80 to 120 ft tall, with long clear boles. Diameters up to 60 in. are reported. Crown is flat with upturned limbs.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Sapwood is yellowish; the heartwood of various shades of brown, often with bright red streaks. Mostly straight grained and of uniform texture without prominent alternating bands of early- and latewood. The wood has no distinctive odor.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) averages about 0.45. Air-dry density commonly 30 to 40 pcf, averaging 34.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (42) 7,540 1,280 4,180 12% 14,210 1,510 7,980

Green (30) 8,650 1,550 3,810 15% 12,400 5,990

Janka side hardness reported to be 560 lb green and 780 lb at 12% moisture content. Amsler toughness 130 in.-lb at 15% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Parana pine is reported to be more difficult to season than most softwoods, darker colored material is prone to distortion and splitting and dries more slowly. Piles should be weighted to minimize warp. Kiln schedule T3- D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-01 for 8/4 stock. Movement of seasoned wood is rated as medium. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.8%; tangential 7.3%; volumetric 11.6%.

Working Properties: The wood can be worked easily by hand and machine tools and dresses to a smooth finish. If compression wood is present, there can be considerable distortion when boards are planed, ripped, or resawed. Glues satisfactorily and holds paint well.

Durability: Heartwood is classified as nondurable.

Preservation: Heartwood is moderately resistant; the sapwood is permeable. Reported to absorb water-repellent preservatives readily during 3-minute dipping treatments for millwork. There were practically no differences in the amounts absorbed by light-colored sapwood or dark-colored heartwood.

Uses: Principal uses include framing lumber, interior trim, sash and door stock, furniture, case goods, and veneer. In Brazil the timber is made into plywood and is also considered suitable for pulp and paper products.

Additional Reading (30), (42), (53), (69)

Aspidosperma spp. (Araracanga group)

Araracanga Family: Apocynaceae

Other Common Names: Volador, Pelmax (Mexico), Mylady (Belize), Alcarreto (Panama), Copachi (Colombia), Kromanti kopi (Surinam), Jacamim, Piquiá marfim (Brazil).

Distribution: The species placed in this group are found in Mexico, through Central America and into the high forests on moist terra firma in the lower Amazon region, including the Guianas.

The Tree

Large canopy tree; unbuttressed; up to 120 ft high, with diameters 24 to 36 in.; straight boles often clear to two-thirds of total tree height.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood bright orange red to reddish brown when freshly cut becoming light pinkish brown or pale yellowish brown upon exposure and drying. Sapwood narrow, white to yellowish, becoming darker on exposure and then not clearly differentiated from the heartwood. Grain straight to irregular; texture medium, uniform; without pronounced odor or taste when dry.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) averages 0.70 to 0.80; air-dry density about 53 to 64 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of values based on the 2-in. standard, the second on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 14,100 2,500 6,650 12% 20,790 2,760 11,110

12% (24) 29,170 3,894 14,480

Janka side hardness for material from Belize was 1,820 lb air-dry, wood from Venezuela tested 3,080 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness for Belize timber was 153 in.-lb average for green and air-dry material and 284 in.-lb for the Venezuelan wood (5/8-in. specimen). Drying and Shrinkage: Not difficult to air season but should be dried at a moderate rate to avoid both end- and surface checking. In Surinam 4/4 stock was kiln dried without any difficulties using schedule similar to T7-B3. Shrinkage green to ovendry for Belize material: radial 5.2%; tangential 8.7%; volumetric 14.3%. Volumetric shrinkage about 19% for wood from Guyana and Venezuela.

Working Properties: The wood is reported to machine well and rates fair to excellent in all operations; finishes smoothly and takes a high polish.

Durability: Heartwood is rated very durable in its resistance to both white-rot and brown-rot fungi (Belize source). However, field trials in Venezuela indicate only moderate durability.

Preservation: Heartwood is reported to absorb over 6 pcf of preservative oils using either a hot and cold bath treatment or a pressure-vacuum system; penetration was deep and uniform (test specimens were 20 in. long and not end coated).

Uses: Interior work, paneling, furniture, flooring, turnery, heavy construction, railway crossties, and boat framing.

Additional Reading (17), (24), (72), (74)

Aspidosperma spp. (Peroba group)

Peroba Rosa

Family: Apocynaceae

Other Common Names: Amarello, Amargoso (Brazil), Ibira-romí, Palo rosa (Argentina).

Distribution: Southeastern Brazil and la Selva Misionera of Argentina. Reported to occur in abundance in the state of So Paulo.

The Tree

A large tree reaching a maximum height of 125 ft with a well-formed trunk up to 4 or 5 ft in diameter; clear boles to 30 ft are common.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood rose red to yellowish, often variegated or streaked with purple or brown, becoming brownish yellow to dark brown upon exposure; not sharply demarcated from the yellowish sapwood. Texture fine and uniform; grain straight to irregular; luster low to medium. Odor not distinctive; taste bitter.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) averages about 0.65. The wood is moderately heavy weighing 47 pcf air dry.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (42) 11,460 1,204 5,770 12% 12,760 1,436 8,250

Green (30) 12,760 1,338 6,020 15% 15,024 7,880

Janka side hardness reported to be 1,580 lb for green wood and 1,732 lb at a moisture content of 12%. Amsler toughness is 206 in.-lb at a moisture content of 15% (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood dries with little checking or splitting, but some warp may develop. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and schedule T3- D1 for 8/4 stock. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.8%; tangential 6.4%; volumetric 11.6%.

Working Properties: The wood works with moderate ease, although some difficulties may be anticipated with irregular grain. It takes finishes readily and can be glued satisfactorily.

Durability: Heartwood is rated durable but is susceptible to dry-wood termite attack.

Preservation: Heartwood is reported to be extremely resistant to preservation treatments.

Uses: Suitable for general construction work, favored for fine furniture and cabinet work and decorative veneers. Other uses include flooring, interior trim, sash and doors, and turnery.

Additional Reading (30), (42), (56), (69)

Astronium graveolens

Goncalo Alves

Family: Anacardiaceae

Other Common Names: Palo de cera, Palo de culebra (Mexico), Gusanero (Colombia), Gateado (Venezuela), Guaritá (Brazil), Guasango (Ecuador).

Distribution: Goncalo Alves is a common tree in the upland forests of many regions from Mexico and Central America through to Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Ecuador.

The Tree

Attains diameters of 24 to 40 in. or more and a maximum height of 120 ft. Except for narrow buttress flanges 4 to 6 ft tall, it has a clear cylindrical trunk for two-thirds or more of its height. The logs are typically sound throughout.

The Wood

General Characteristics: When fresh, the heartwood is russet brown, orange brown, or reddish brown to red with narrow to wide irregular stripes of medium to very dark brown. After exposure it becomes brown, red, or dark reddish brown with nearly black stripes. The dingy grayish or brownish-white sapwood, 2 to 4 in. wide, is sharply demarcated. Grain variable, straight to roey; texture fine to medium, uniform; no distinctive odor or taste. The wood often has a striking figure caused by irregular dark longitudinal bands.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) averages 0.84 for timber from Honduras and Venezuela; material from Brazil and Colombia averages 0.75. Average air-dry density is about 60 pcf from these four sources.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of values based on 2-in. standard; second set based on 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 12,140 1,940 6,580 12% 16,620 2,230 10,320

Green (30) 17,170 2,000 8,930 15% 19,670 11,100

Janka side hardness 1,910 lb for green material and 2,160 lb for dry. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material from Honduras and Venezuela is 139 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Moderately difficult to season. Some crook and bow accompanied by a slight tendency to twist, checking slight. Air-dries at a fast to moderate rate. A kiln schedule similar to T3-C2 has been suggested. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.0%; tangential 7.6%; volumetric 10.0%; slightly higher for Brazilian material.

Working Properties: it is not difficult to work in spite of its high density, finishes very smoothly, and takes a high polish. The wood weathers well and is highly resistant to moisture absorption. It is reported to be difficult to glue.

Durability: Laboratory tests indicate the heartwood to be very durable in resistance to both white-rot and brown-rot organisms. These results substantiate the reputed high durability of this species.

Preservation: Using either hot and cold bath or pressure-vacuum systems, sapwood absorbs only 2 to 4 pcf of preserving oils; heartwood absorbed one-half of this amount.

Uses: Among the most outstanding heavy, durable construction timbers, also highly favored as a fine furniture and cabinet wood. Cut for decorative veneers. it is used for specialty items such as knife handles, brush backs, archery bows, billiard cue butts, turnery, and carving.

Additional Reading (30), (71), (74)

Bagassa guianensis

Bagasse

Family: Moraceae

Other Common Names: Cow-wood (Guyana), Gele bagasse (Surinam), Bagasse jaune (French Guiana), Tatajuba, Amapá-rana (Brazil).

Distribution: Rather infrequent occurrence in the Guianas and the Brazilian Amazon.

The Tree

A large, well-formed, unbuttressed canopy tree with a flat, umbrella-shaped crown. The trees are generally 20 to 24 in. in diameter, and 90 to 100 ft in height. The bole is cylindrical and 60 to 70 ft high. Bark, when cut, yields large quantities of a sweet, sticky latex.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Unseasoned heartwood is yellow, often streaked with brown, becoming lustrous golden-brown to russet on exposure. Sapwood is narrow, sharply demarcated, pale yellow to yellowish white. Grain usually interlocked resulting in a rather broad stripe; texture medium to coarse, moderately uniform; odor and taste not distinctive when seasoned.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) averages 0.68. Air- dry density averages 50 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 14,510 2,300 7,900 12% 20,050 2,580 11,560

Janka side hardness 1,670 lb for green wood and 1,730 lb for dry. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 196 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons at a moderate rate with very little tendency to warp or check. No kiln schedules are available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 5.2%; tangential 6.6%; volumetric 10.2%. Volumetric shrinkage is exceptionally low for a wood of this density.

Working Properties: Easy to saw and finishes smoothly.

Durability: Heartwood is reported to be very durable when exposed to either white-rot or brown-rot fungi; slightly resistant to marine borers. Weathering characteristics are considered poor.

Preservation: Heartwood is highly resistant to moisture absorption, comparable to teak in this respect, suggesting poor treatability. Uses: Wood used locally for general building purposes, heavy construction, furniture, boat construction. Because of its high resilience, it may be suitable for some types of sporting equipment. Wood is similar to black locust and could be used as a substitute for some applications.

Additional Reading: (46), (56), (74)

Balfourodendron riedelianum

Pau Marfim

Family: Rutaceae

Other Common Names: Marfim, Pau liso (Brazil), Guatambú, Guatambú blanco (Argentina).

Distribution: State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; northern and central Paraguay; and the Selva Misionera, Argentina.

The Tree

A small to medium-sized tree rarely up to 80 ft high and 30 in. in diameter. Has a well-formed, straight bole up to 30 ft high.

The Wood

General Characteristics: A nearly white or pale yellowish-brown wood without apparent contrast between sapwood and heartwood. Luster medium; grain generally straight; texture fine and uniform; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) averages 0.73 for wood grown in Brazil and 0.65 for Argentinian material. Air-dry density averages about 50 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (30) 15,170 1,665 6,320 15% 19,870 8,535

Amsler air-dry toughness 581 in.-lb (2-cm specimen). Drying and Shrinkage: Can be dried without excessive degrade. Kiln schedule T6-C3 is suggested for 4/4 stock, and schedule T5-C2 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.6%; tangential 8.8%; volumetric 13.4%.

Working Properties: Limited information suggests that the wood can be sawn and worked without undue difficulty. It is nonsiliceous and nonresinous and unlikely to have a marked blunting effect on tools; easy to finish and is reported to glue satisfactorily.

Durability: Heartwood is rated as nondurable.

Preservation: Reported to be resistant to treatment by pressure methods.

Uses: Furniture, cabinetwork, tool handles, flooring, turnery. Suggested as a substitute for birch and hard maple.

Additional Reading (30), (56), (69)

Bertholletia excelsa

Brazil-Nut Tree

Family: Lecythidaceae

Other Common Names: Castaña del Marañón (Colombia), Juvia, Yubia (Venezuela), Brazilnoot (Surinam), Castanha verdadeira, Castanheiro (Brazil).

Distribution: Common throughout the Amazon region of Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, and Peru. In Venezuela also found in the forests of the upper Orinoco and Rio Negro. Reaches its best development on well-drained clayish or sandy clay soils.

The Tree

One of the largest trees of the Amazon region. Diameters occasionally reach 12 ft, and heights up to 160 ft; excellent form. The tree is highly valued for its seeds, the Brazil nuts of commerce.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is uniform pinkish brown becoming light chestnut brown after exposure to light. Sapwood is about 2 to 4 in. thick, pale yellowish brown, sharply demarcated from heartwood. Texture rather coarse to medium; luster medium; grain typically interlocked; odor and taste not distinctive.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) averages 0.59. Air- dry density 44 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 9,740 1,610 4,530 12% 14,680 1,760 6,890

Janka side hardness 940 lb green and 1,150 lb air dry. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 143 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-dries rapidly with very little degrade. Warp and checking are slight with a minimum of case-hardening. No kiln-drying data available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.9%; tangential 8.3%; volumetric 11.2%. Has a very low rate of moisture absorption.

Working Properties: The wood is moderately difficult to work, glues readily, and finishes smoothly. Exudations of gum tend to clog saws in cutting green material. Moderately easy to cut into smooth tight veneer of uniform thickness.

Durability: Laboratory tests indicate heartwood is very durable to durable in resistance to white-rot and brown-rot fungi. The wood displays good weathering characteristics.

Preservation: Low rates of moisture absorption suggest a poor response to preservation treatments.

Uses: Boat and ship decking, steam-bending applications, railroad ties, exterior construction, tanks, flooring, furniture, and cabinet stock. If free of gum, splits, and tension wood, should be suitable for interior decorative panels.

Additional Reading (56), (74)

Bombacopsis quinata

Pochote

Family: Bombacaceae

Other Common Names: Cedro espino (Honduras, Nicaragua), Saquisaqui (Venezuela), Ceiba tolua (Colombia).

Distribution: Common in the more open forests of western Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Also on the Atlantic side of Panama and in Colombia and Venezuela. Abundant throughout its range, mostly on well-drained, often gravelly soils on the upper slopes of low hills and ridges.

The Tree

Medium-sized to large tree, not infrequently 3 ft and sometimes 5 or 6 ft° in diameter; reaches a height of 100 ft. Wide-spreading crown of heavy branches; somewhat irregular bole; generally buttressed. Trunk and larger branches armed with hard sharp prickles.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is uniform pale pinkish or pinkish brown when freshly cut, becoming light to dark reddish brown on exposure; sharply demarcated from yellowish sapwood. Grain straight to slightly interlocked; texture medium; luster rather low. Heartwood without distinctive odor but sometimes with a slightly astringent taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) averages 0.45. Air- dry density about 34 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 7,560 1,260 3,440 12% 10,490 1,400 5,660

12% (71) 12,110 6,480

Janka side hardness 650 lb for green material and 720 lb for dry. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 103 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Air-seasons very slowly, required almost a year to dry 8/4 stock to a moisture content of 20%. Warp and checking slight. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.4%; tangential 6.2%; volumetric 10.0%.

Working Properties: The wood has been reported as easy to work, finishing smoothly; also easy to nail.

Durability: The heartwood is rated as durable in its resistance to white-rot fungi, very durable in resistance to brown rots. Susceptible to attack by both dry-wood and subterranean termites. Good resistance to marine borers reported in Panama waters.

Presentation: Heartwood is very difficult to treat with very poor absorption and penetration. Sapwood can absorb 10 to 20 pcf of preservative using either hot and cold bath or pressure systems; penetration though is irregular.

Uses: Used locally for general construction, interior finish, millwork, furniture stock, veneer and plywood, particleboard, and pulp and paper products.

Additional Reading (56), (71), (74)

Bowdichia spp.

Sucupira

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Alcornoque (Venezuela), Sapupira, Sucupira parda (Brazil).

Distribution: B. nitida occurs in the forests of the Rio Negro and lower Amazon region. B. virgilioides has a greater range from Venezuela and the Guianas to southeastern Brazil.

The Tree

On favorable sites it is a medium-sized to large tree, up to 150 ft high and diameter to 4 ft. Over part of its range it is a savanna tree of small size and poor form.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood dull chocolate to reddish brown, with parenchyma striping; sharply demarcated from whitish sapwood. Luster low; texture coarse with harsh feel; grain irregular and interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) averages 0.74. Air- dry density about 56 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (30) 18,150 2,270 10,140 15% 20,450 11,560

Air-dry Amsler toughness 396 in.-lb (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: No information on drying characteristics. A kiln schedule similar to T5-B2 has been suggested. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 5.0%; tangential 7.8%; volumetric 13.4%.

Working Properties: Difficult to work because of its high density and interlocked and irregular grain, but can be finished fairly smoothly. Glues well.

Durability: Heartwood reported to be very durable; railroad ties in the Netherlands showed no sign of decay after 17 years of service.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Suggested for heavy durable construction, railway ties, and other uses not requiring much fabrication.

Additional Reading (22), (30), (56)

Brosiminm spp. (Alicastrum group)

Capomo Ojoche

Family: Moraceae

Other Common Names: Masicarón (Guatemala, Honduras), Ojuste (El Salvador), Guaimaro, Manata (Colombia), Tillo (Ecuador), Muiratinga (Brazil).

Distribution: B. alicastrum and other closely related species are found in southern Mexico through Central America and southward into the Peruvian Amazon.

The Tree

Trees reach a height of 120 ft, with straight cylindrical boles clear to 75 ft; diameters may range up to 30 to 40 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Both sapwood and heartwood a uniform yellowish white; wood around knots and other defects may be a distinct red. Texture is fine to medium; grain is straight to irregular and shallowly interlocked; luster low; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) very variable with species ranging between 0.55 to 0.72. Air-dry density from 45 to 65 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green(18) 17,610 1,850

12% (63) 16,050 1,850

12% (71) 16,610 8,870

Janka side hardness ranges between 1,340 lb and 1,700 lb dry.

Drying and Shrinkage: Easy to moderately difficult to air-dry, tendency to twist. No information on kiln-drying. Shrinkage green to ovendry: 5.1% radial; 9.4% tangential; 15.4% volumetric.

Working Properties: Reported to be easy to moderately difficult to machine. Because of its density and silica content of 0.68%, proper cutters should be selected. Figured wood is sliced for face veneers without difficulty.

Durability: Durability is low, vulnerable to attack by white-rot and brown-rot fungi. Particularly susceptible to insect attack because of abundant starch.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: General construction work, flooring, furniture, cabinet work, veneers, and tool handles. Cooked seeds of B. alicastrum are edible.

Additional Reading (15), (17), (56), (63), (71)

Brosimum spp. (Utile group)

Cow-Tree Sande

Family: Moraceae

Other Common Names: Mastate (Costa Rica), Avichuri (Colombia), Palo de vaca (Venezuela), Amapá doce, Gaucho macho (Brazil).

Distribution: Ranges from the Atlantic Coast in Costa Rica southward to Colombia and Ecuador.

The Tree

The tree attains a height of 80 to 100 ft with an erect trunk about 30 to 45 in. in diameter.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Dried there is no distinction between sapwood and heartwood, uniform yellowish white to yellowish brown or light brown. Grain is straight to widely and shallowly interlocked; medium texture; luster high. Odorless and tasteless.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) ranges from 0.35 to 0.50 for this group. Air-dry density averages about 24 to 38 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)< lit> Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Psi 1,000 psi Psi

Green (7) 8,490 1,940 4,490 12% 14,310 2,390 8,220

Janka side hardness 603 lb for green material and 903 lb for air dry.

Drying and Shrinkage: The lumber air-seasons rapidly and easily with little or no degrade. However, material containing tension wood will be subject to warp. Kiln schedule T5-C3 has been suggested for 4/4 stock. A faster schedule was developed that can dry this wood to 7 percent moisture content in 6 to 8 days (51). Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.9%; tangential 7.8%.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to machine. However, tension wood is sometimes prevalent and this will cause fuzzy grain and burning of saws due to pinching. Takes stains and finishes readily; presents no gluing problems.

Durability: The wood is vulnerable to attack by stain and decay fungi as well as insects.

Preservation: Reported to be treatable, but no detailed information is available.

Uses: Plywood, particleboard, fiberboard, carpentry, light construction, furniture components, pulp and paper products, and moldings.

Additional Reading (7), (51), (56), (71)

Buchenavia capitata

Yellow Sanders

Family: Combretaceae

Other Common Names: Granadillo (Puerto Rico), Almendro (Colombia), Amarillo, Olivo negro (Venezuela), Mirindiba, Periquiteira (Brazil).

Distribution: West Indies, Panama, and South America from Venezuela to French Guiana, Brazil, and Bolivia. Several related species are found in the Amazon region.

The Tree

Grows to a height of 60 to 80 ft and 2 to 4 ft in diameter; has rather large buttresses, but has good log form above them.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellowish brown when freshly cut becoming yellow to golden brown usually with a gray or olive hue upon exposure; sapwood light yellow brown. Grain more or less interlocked; texture medium to rather coarse; luster high; with faint spicy odor and mildly bitter taste when green.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.63; air-dry density 47 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 10,050 1,460 5,130 12% 12,970 1,650 7,440

Janka side hardness averages 1,220 lb for air-dry wood. FPL toughness average for green and dry material is 123 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Lumber air-seasons rapidly with only a very small amount of degrade in the form of slight bow and twist. This species also performed well in a solar dryer (5/4 stock). No kiln schedules are available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.8%; tangential 5.7%; volumetric 8.6%. Very low values for a wood of this density.

Working Properties: The wood machines with moderate difficulty because of its hardness, but it produces good surfaces in all operations even though some tearing may result from irregular grain. Performs well in spindle carving. Easy to finish. Rated as fair in steam-bending characteristics.

Durability: Heartwood reported as fairly resistant to decay and to attack by termites and rated as very resistant to attack by dry-wood termites. The wood has little resistance to marine borers. The wood weathers well. Heartwood is relatively high in resistance to moisture absorption. Sapwood highly vulnerable to powder-post beetle attack.

Preservation: Sapwood treatability with oil- or water-based preservatives is rated very low; absorptions can be greatly improved by incising. Heartwood impermeable.

Uses: An attractive furniture wood and suggested for decking, planking, and framing in boat construction; exterior and interior flooring; decorative veneers; turning; wood tanks. The wood has many characteristics similar to white oak and teak. Additional Reading (45), (56), (65), (74)

Bucida buceras

Jucaro Oxhorn Bucida

Family:Combretaceae

Other Common Names: Black-olive (Jamaica), Ucar, Gregre (Puerto Rico), Bois gri- gri (Haiti), Grignon (French Guiana), Leertouwarsboom (Surinam).

Distribution: Upper Florida Keys, Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, and Leeward Islands to Guadeloupe in Lesser Antilles. Also from southern Mexico to Panama and northern South America along the coasts of Colombia, Venezuela, and the Guianas.

The Tree

A widely spreading timber and shade tree, medium to large sized, 30 to 60 ft high and up to 3 ft in trunk diameter, sometimes to heights of 110 ft and diameters of 5 ft, with erect cylindrical boles.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellowish to greenish-brown, olive hued; not always sharply demarcated from yellowish- to light brown sapwood. Longitudinal stripes are frequent as a result of roey grain; moderately fine to medium in texture; very lustrous. Although green wood has a tarry odor, seasoned wood has no characteristic odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.93; air-dry density 69 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (39) 15,400 2,000

Janka side hardness 2,340 lb for green wood.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is moderately easy to season for a timber of high density; only minor amounts of warping and checking occur. Shrinkage green to ovendry is also low for its weight: radial 4.4%; tangential 7.9%; volumetric 12.2%. No kiln schedules available.

Working Properties: The wood is rather difficult to saw and machine with hand and power tools because of its very high density. Very smooth finishes can be obtained, however torn grain is common in planing.

Durability: Resistant to dry-wood termites and durable in ground contact but not resistant to marine borers.

Preservation: Both sapwood and heartwood are resistant to impregnation with preservatives.

Uses: Highly valued for posts, poles, railway crossties, and other durable construction; heavy duty flooring, workbenches; charcoal. The bark has been employed in tanning.

Additional Reading (17), (39), (45), (56)

Bulnesia arborea

Verawood Maracaibo Lignum-Vitae

Family: Zygophyllaceae

Other Common Names: Guayacán, Guayacán de bola (Colombia), Bera, Cuchivaro, Vera aceituna (Venezuela).

Distribution: Coastal region of Colombia and Venezuela, common on the dry foothills between Porto Cabello and Lake Maracaibo.

The Tree

Occasionally 100 ft tall but usually 40 to 50 ft with a trunk diameter of 14 to 20 in.; boles slender, straight, and of rather good form, free of branches for 15 to 20 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood more or less striped and banded, varying in color from light olive green to chocolate brown; surface of fresh wood often turns dark green upon exposure. Sapwood is mostly thin and light yellow in color. Fine textured; cross-grained; oily appearance and feel; mildly and pleasantly scented when warmed.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 1.00; air-dry density 78 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: No data available.

Drying and Shrinkage: Owing to its high density and the resinous nature of the timber, the wood dries slowly and needs careful handling to avoid splitting; also prone to ring shake. No shrinkage data available.

Working Properties: When seasoned, it is not easy to work either with machine or hand tools but does turn well in the lathe.

Durability: Heartwood is very durable under exposure and will last indefinitely in the ground.

Preservation: Not treatable.

Uses: Because of its high density and self-lubrication, has many uses similar to that of Guaiacum but is not considered as suitable for propeller-shaft bushings. Used as steps and collars for water turbines, mallet heads, pulley wheels, brush backs, locally for railway crossties.

Additional Reading (54), (56), (79)

Bursera simaruba

Gumbo-Limbo Almácigo

Family: Burseraceae

Other Common Names: Turpentine tree (Jamaica), Gommier blanc (Haiti), Chaca, Palo chino (Mexico), Carate (Panama, Colombia), Caraña, Indio desnudo (Venezuela).

Distribution: Of common occurrence in southern Florida, the West Indies, southern Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. The tree is not exacting as to site and moisture conditions but reaches its best development in lowland forests. On some sites it occurs as pure or nearly pure forests.

The Tree

Generally a slender unbuttressed tree of short to medium height, commonly to 60 ft; diameters 14 to 18 in. Sometimes attain heights of 80 to 90 ft with trunk diameters of 3 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is white, yellowish, or light brown, not differentiated from sapwood. Texture is fine to medium; grain fairly straight to irregular; moderate to rather high luster; without distinctive taste or odor.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.30 to 0.38; air- dry density reported to range from 19 to 30 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green(46) 3,300 560 1,510 12% 4,800 740 3,080

12% (64) 5,560 1,080

Janka side hardness reported to be 270 lb air dry id 230 lb for green wood.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air seasons rapidly with minor degrade in the form of vt'-v.° slight checking and warp. Logs and lumber are very susceptible to attack by sap-stain fungi, requiring rapid conversion and chemical control. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.6%; tangential 4.2%; volumetric 7.3%.

Working Properties: The wood works easily with either hand or machine tools but with some fuzziness and torn grain. The use of very sharp, thin cutting edges and reduced feed rates is suggested. The wood has excellent resistance to screw- splitting and holds nails firmly. Logs are reported to peel well on rotary lathes without preheating.

Durability: The wood is not durable in ground contact and is vulnerable to powder-post beetle and termite attack.

Preservation: Capable of good absorption using either oil- or waterborne preservatives.

Uses: The timber is used for matchsticks, boxes, crates, house construction, and general carpentry; also suggested for pattern and core stock. Manufactured into a utility plywood in Mexico. Tree is used extensively as "live fencing;" also yields an aromatic resin used as an incense and varnish.

Additional Reading (17), (46), (64)

Byrsonima coriacea var. spicata and Byrsonima spp.

Serrette

Family: Malpighiaceae

Other Common Names: Golden spoon (British West Indies), Maricao (Puerto Rico), Changugo (Mexico), Chaparro (Colombia), Candelo (Venezuela), Kanoaballi (Guyana), Chupicara (Peru), Murici (Brazil).

Distribution: Throughout West Indies, Central America, Colombia, the Guianas, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Common in secondary forests and frequently on lands degraded by farming.

The Tree

Generally may reach a height of 100 to 120 ft, with trunk diameters up to 3 ft. Straight cylindrical bole free of buttresses, and clear to 60 to 70 ft.

The Wood

General CharacterIstIcs: Heartwood pale to dark reddish brown with a purplish cast, sometimes with a grayish tint. Gray to reddish-brown sapwood somewhat distinct from heartwood. Grain mostly straight or slightly interlocked; texture moderately fine; medium luster; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.61; air-dry density 46 pcf.

Mechanical PropertIes: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (42) 12,200 1,570 5,800 12% 18,000 1,950 9,750

Janka side hardness 1,140 lb when green and 1,530 lb for air-dry wood. Forest Products Laboratory toughness reported to be 132 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons fairly well, drying at a rather slow to moderate rate; end and surface checking are slight but some tendency to warp. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.0%; tangential 8.2%; volumetric 12.2%.

Working Properties: The wood works fairly easily with both hand and power tools; good to excellent surfaces are produced in all operations. Proper size lead holes must be prebored before screws are driven or the wood splits rather badly.

Durability: The wood is very susceptible to dry-wood termites and other wood- destroying insects, only slightly resistant to decay fungi; no appreciable resistance to marine borers.

Preservation: Heartwood and sapwood are both moderately resistant to impregnation; good end penetration, however, suggests favorable response to incising.

Uses: General carpentry, furniture and cabinet work, flooring, and turnery. It has been suggested for plywood and veneer.

Additional Reading (22), (24), (42), (45)

Cabralea cangerana

Cangerana

Family: Meliaceae

Other Common Names: Cajarana, Pau de santo (Brazil), Cancharana, Canxarana (Argentina), Congerana (Uruguay), Cedro-rá (Paraguay).

Distribution: Found in Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina but is most abundant in central and southeastern Brazil.

The Tree

Usually of medium height but with a large trunk up to 4 ft in diameter.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood typically dull red or maroon, sometimes lighter colored with purplish streaks; not always sharply demarcated from the pinkish sapwood. The wood has a fragrant scent when fresh but without odor or taste when dry. Texture medium to coarse; grain generally straight, sometimes wary.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.55; air-dry density 42 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (30) 10,100 1,360 5,700 15% 12,700 7,400

Air-dry Amsler toughness 147 in.-lb (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: No data available on drying characteristics. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.4%; tangential 6.6%; volumetric 10.4%.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work, finishes smoothly.

Durability: Heartwood highly resistant to attack by decay fungi and insects.

Preservation: No data available.

Uses: General carpentry, interior and exterior construction, joinery, fine furniture, favored in Brazil for carving.

Additional Reading (30), (56), (6~

Caesalpinia Spp. syn. Libidibia spp.

Partridgewood Coffeewood

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: èbano (Mexico), Granadillo (Colombia, Venezuela). Distribution: Chiefly Venezuela but also found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

The Tree

Mature trees are from 50 to 75 ft tail, with a well-formed trunk sometimes 36 in. in diameter, clear of branches for 35 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood dark red to chocolate brown or nearly black, usually with fine pencil-striping of parenchyma; sharply demarcated from the yellowish- or pinkish-white sapwood. Luster medium to low; texture medium to coarse; grain straight to very irregular; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 1.05; air-dry density 78 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: A heavy strong timber, but no technical data available on mechanical properties.

Drying and Shrinkage: Requires care in seasoning, slow drying. With adequate precautions, results are satisfactory. No shrinkage data available. Kiln schedule T3-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-C1 for 8/4.

Working Properties: Difficult to work, but finishes smoothly; works very well in turnery.

Durability: Highly resistant to attack by decay fungi.

Preservation: Not treatable.

Uses: Specialty turnery. in countries of origin used for heavy construction work.

Additional Reading (56), (78), (80)

Calophyllum brasiliense

Santa Maria Jacareuba

Family: Guttiferae

Other Common Names: Barí, Leche de Mariá (Mexico), Calaba (Panama), Aceite maria (Colombia), Edaballi, Kurahara (Guayana), Balsamaría (Bolivia), Guanandi, Jacareuba (Brazil).

Distribution: Grows throughout the West Indies and from Mexico southward through Central America and into northern South America. It is found on all types of soils-from wet, humid to very dry sites.

The Tree

When conditions are favorable, the tree attains a height of 100 to 150 ft with a long straight clear bole 3 to 6 ft in diameter; unbuttressed.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood varies in color from pink or yellowish pink to brick red or rich reddish brown; sapwood 1 to 2 in. wide, lighter in color and not always clearly differentiated from heartwood. Texture medium and fairly uniform; grain generally interlocked; luster rather low to medium; odor and taste not distinctive.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.51; air-dry density 39 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of values based on 2-in. standard, second set of values based on 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 10,490 1,590 4,560 12% 14,640 1,830 6,910

Green (22) 11,100 1,470 5,490 12% 15,700 1,710 8,730

Janka side hardness 890 lb for green wood and 1,150 lb for dry. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 180 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is moderately difficult to air-season, drying rate varies considerably, warp is moderate to severe, surface checking is slight. Kiln schedule T2-D4 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T2-D3 for 8/4. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 4.6%; tangential 8.0%; volumetric 13.6%. Movement in service is rated as medium.

Working Properties: The wood is fairly easy to work and generally yields smooth surfaces on straight-grained material but generates torn and chipped grain when interlocked; rates below average in planing, turning, and boring. Rotary cutting of this species for veneer has not been satisfactory.

Durability: The heartwood is generally rated as durable to moderately durable with respect to decay resistance; rated as very susceptible to attack by dry- wood termites; not resistant to marine borers.

Preservation: Heartwood is very resistant to impregnation by nonpressure and pressure systems. Sapwood has good permeability if incised.

Uses: Widely used in the tropics for general construction, flooring, furniture, boat construction; a favored general utility timber.

Additional Reading (22), (46), (75)

Calycophyllum candidissimum

Degame Lemonwood

Family: Rubiaceae

Other Common Names: Camarón, Palo camarón (Mexico), Surra (Costa Rica), Alazano (Panama), Guayabo (Colombia), Araguato, Betún (Venezuela).

Distribution: Occurs in Cuba and ranges from southern Mexico through Central America to Colombia and Venezuela. Degame may occur in pure stands and is common on shaded hillsides and along waterways.

The Tree

A small to medium-sized tree usually 40 to 50 ft high but may reach heights of 90 ft and diameters to 30 in. Boles usually straight and free of branches for half the total tree height.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood ranges from light brown to oatmeal color and is sometimes grayish. Sapwood is lighter in color and merges gradually with the heartwood. Luster is low to medium; texture, fine and uniform; grain, straight to interlocked; odor and taste, not distinctive.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.67; air-dry density 51 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (76) 14,290 1,930 6,200 12% 22,300 2,270 9,670

Janka side hardness 1,630 lb when green and 1,940 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 252 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Some tendency to warp when dried as small squares (for archery bows); also some surface and end checking occurs in plank stock. Kiln schedule T2-C2 is suggested for 4/4 lumber and T2-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.8%; tangential 8.6%; volumetric 13.2%.

Working Properties: The wood is difficult to saw and moderately difficult to work in planing and boring; no appreciable dulling effect on cutters. Machined surfaces are very smooth; takes a glossy polish.

Durability: The wood is generally regarded as lacking appreciable resistance to attack by decay fungi. Pure-culture laboratory tests indicate high durability when exposed to a brown-rot fungus but only moderate durability with respect to deterioration by a white-rot fungus. Reported to be highly resistant to marine borers.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Has been used in the manufacture of archery bows and fishing rods. Suitable for tool handles and turnery and is used for shuttles and picker sticks and other textile manufacturing items.

Additional Reading (22), (56), (75)

Campnosperma panamensis

Sajo Orey Family: Anacardiaceae

Other Common Names: Not known.

Distribution: Reported in the Atlantic lowlands of northern Panama, adjacent Costa Rica, and Pacific coastal regions of Colombia; forms almost pure stands in these marshy areas.

The Tree

Medium-sized trees 40 to 60 ft high with bole diameters of 10 to 15 in., occasionally up to 24 in.; well-formed stems that are often clear to 30 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood white to grayish buff sometimes with a yellowish tint; no marked contrast with the sapwood. Somewhat silvery luster; fine textured; straight grained; distinctive odor when fresh, but without characteristic odor or taste when dry.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.33; air-dry density 25 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (7) 5,080 1,070 2,660 12% 8,700 1,480 5,200

Janka side hardness 336 lb for green material and 425 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: The lumber air-seasons rapidly with little or no tendency to warp or check. Kiln schedule T5-C3 has been suggested for 4/4 stock. A faster schedule has been suggested that can dry this wood to 7% moisture content in 6 to 8 days (51). No shrinkage data available.

Working Properties: This wood is easy to saw and machine with ordinary shop tools; holds nails well; finishes smoothly.

Durability: The wood is not resistant to attack by decay fungi or insects; prone to blue stain.

Preservation: The wood is reported to be easy to treat.

Uses: Boxes and food containers, furniture components, millwork, moldings, plywood, particleboard, fiberboard, pulp and paper products; also suggested for pencil slats.

Additional Reading (7), (51), (52), (71)

Carapa guianensis

Crabwood Andiroba

Family: Meliaceae

Other Common Names: Cedro macho (Costa Rica), Bateo (Panama), Mazabalo (Colombia), Carapa (Venezuela), Krapa (Surinam), Figueroa, Tangarè (Ecuador), Andiroba (Peru, Brazil).

Distribution: Occurs in the West Indies from Cuba to Trinidad and from Honduras south through Central America, the Guianas, and into Brazil, Colombia, and Peru, and the overflow delta lands of the Orinoco in Venezuela; often occurs in pure stands; a lowland species but also at high altitudes along rivers.

The Tree

Commonly 80 to 100 ft in height with diameters 2 to 3 ft; sometimes attain diameters up to 6 ft and heights of 170 ft. Buttresses are low, leaving a clear bole length of 50 ft or more; main stems are straight and of good form.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is a light salmon to reddish brown when fresh, becoming darker when dry, color very variable; sapwood is pinkish turning pale brown or grayish, not always sharply demarcated from heartwood. Texture varies from fine to coarse; luster ranges from low to high; grain usually straight but sometimes roey; odor and taste lacking.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.56; air-dry densIty 41 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of values based on 2-in. standard; second set, 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 11,110 1,560 4,930 12% 15,620 1,850 7,900

12% (24) 15,500 2,080 8,540

Janka side hardness 1,060 lb for green material and 1,220 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 130 in.-lb (5/8-in specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Experience is variable, reported to air-season and kiln-dry rather slowly with a tendency to split, check, and collapse but without serious bowing or cupping; also reported to be only moderately difficult to air-dry with only slight checking and warp. Kiln schedule T3-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.1%; tangential 7.6%; volumetric 10.4%. Movement in service is rated small.

Working Properties: Can be worked with machine and hand tools; reported to be somewhat harder to machine than mahogany; has a tendency to split when nailed; glues and screws well; peels well for veneer.

Durability: Very variable, laboratory tests report both high and low resistance to brown- and white-rot fungi; also variously reported to be resistant or poorly resistant to decay in the ground. Reported to be very susceptible to dry-wood termite attack; also vulnerable to powder-post beetle attack. Comparable to mahogany in weathering properties.

Preservation: Absorption is low and penetration is poor in heartwood treated by either pressure or nonpressure systems.

Uses: Suitable for all types of construction where durability is not a factor; furniture and cabinet work, flooring, joinery, millwork, veneer and plywood, and turnery.

Additional Reading (24), (30), (46), (74)

M 150 273-9Plywood mill in San Josè, Costa Rica, produces rotary-cut veneers mostly from banak (Virola spp.) and crabwood or cedro macho (Carapa guianensis). Logs trucked in from the Caribbean coast.

Cariniana pyriformis and Cariniana spp.

Albarco Jequitiba

Family: Lecythidaceae

Other Common Names: Abarco (Colombia), Bacú (Venezuela), Cerú, Jequitiba rosa, Jequitibá amarella, Tauary (Brazil).

Distribution: A genus of about 10 species distributed from eastern Peru and northern Bolivia through central Brazil to Venezuela and Colombia. Very common in forests of northern Colombia growing on lower slopes and well-watered valleys.

The Tree

A large tree, frequently 100 to 130 ft in height, with trunk diameters often 4 to 6 ft in diameter; boles are clear to 80 ft; large buttresses; well-formed stems.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood reddish or purplish brown, sometimes with dark streaks usually not sharply demarcated from the pale brown sapwood; luster medium; texture medium; grain straight to interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.46; air-dry density 35 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (42) 13,800 1,410 7,100

Green (30) 10,200 1,530 4,620 15% 12,500 6,320 Air-dry Janka side hardness 1,020 lb. Amsler air-dry toughness is 195 in.-lb (2- cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Air-dries rapidly with only a slight tendency to warp or check. Kiln schedule T3-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and schedule T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.8%; tangential 5.4%; volumetric 9.0%. Reported to have good dimensional stability after manufacture.

Working Properties: Working properties generally satisfactory with only a slight blunting effect on cutting edges; but species in this grouping are also reported to cause rapid dulling of cutters. Silica is estimated to be in excess of 0.05%. Veneers reported to be cut without difficulty.

Durability: Heartwood reported to be durable, particularly deeply colored material; has good resistance to dry-wood termite attack.

Preservation: Heartwood is reported to be extremely resistant to preservative treatment; sapwood is permeable.

Uses: General construction and carpentry, furniture components, shipbuilding, flooring, veneer for plywood, and turnery.

Additional Reading (30), (42), (56), (71)

Caryocar spp.

Piquia Cagui

Family: Caryocaraceae

Other Common Names: C. villosum: Ajillo (Costa Rica), Pekia (Guayana), Sawarie (Surinam), Almendro (Peru), Piquiá (Brazil); C. costarricense Ají (Costa Rica), Cagí, Almendrillo, Almendrón (Colombia).

Distribution: Commercial species of the genus found in Costa Rica and southward into northern Colombia, upland forests of the Amazon valley, to eastern Brazil and the Guianas.

The Tree

Attains heights of 120 to 150 ft and diameters of 5 to 7 ft (16 ft reported) in the Amazon valley; 3- to 4-ft diameters reported in Colombia. Logs of good form and clear to 70 ft.

The Wood General Characteristics: Heartwood yellowish to light grayish brown hardly separable from the sapwood. Texture medium to rather coarse; grain interlocked; fresh material with a mild vinegary scent but without odor or taste when dry.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.67 to 0.76; air- dry density 51 to 58 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 12,450 1,820 6,290 12% 17,060 2,160 8,410

Janka side hardness 1,720 lb for both green and dry material. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 150 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Air-dries at a slow rate, warping and checking develop but only to a minor degree. Classified as moderately difficult to difficult to season. No kiln schedules available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 5.0%; tangential 8.0%; volumetric 13.0%.

Working Properties: Reported as easy to moderately difficult to saw; rapid dulling of cutting edges; radial faces difficult to finish smoothly because of interlocked grain.

Durability: Heartwood rated as very durable in resistance to both brown-rot and white-rot fungi; classified as resistant to dry-wood termites and moderately resistant to marine borers.

Preservation: No data available on treatability. The wood is rated fair in its resistance to weathering (based on laboratory exposure tests) which contradicts its favorable reputation in the tropics.

Uses: General and marine construction, heavy flooring, railway crossties, boat parts, furniture components, especially suitable where hardness and high wear resistance are needed. Tree produces a large edible fruit which contains an oil- producing nut used for culinary purposes.

Additional Reading (4), (46), (74)

Catostemma spp.

Baromalli

Family: Bombacaceae

Other Common Names: Arenillo (Colombia), Baramanni, Baramalli (Guayana), Flambeau rouge (French Guiana), Baraman (Venezuela), Kajoewaballi (Surinam).

Distribution: Carare-Opón and Serrania de San Lucas regions of Colombia; the Guianas, and in the low inundated forests near Manaus and northward in Brazil.

The Tree

On best sites may grow to 48 in. in diameter and 150 ft in height; commonly to heights of 100 ft and diameters of 24 in. Unbuttressed trees with long, clear, cylindrical trunks of excellent form.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood dull yellowish- to pinkish brown, distinct but not sharply demarcated from the yellowish-brown sapwood. Grain is straight to slightly interlocked; texture coarse; luster low; without distinctive odor or taste. Quarter-sawed surfaces show a distinctive "silver-grain" figure.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.50 to 0.60; air- dry density 36 to 46 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (46) 8,100 1,610 3,840 12% 11,200 1,820 6,730

Green (76) 10,670 2,300 4,280 12% 15,450 2,880 8,340

Janka side hardness 520 lb for green and 720 lb for air-dry material with basic specific gravity of 0.50. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 166 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons rather slowly, degrade due to checking and warp is slight. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 5.2%; tangential 11.1%; volumetric 17.5%. Movement of timber in service is rated as large.

Working Properties: Rated as fair to poor in most machining operations but also reported to work easily with machine and hand tools. Machine-finished surfaces lack luster and are harsh to the touch. Takes glue well and can be nailed without splitting. Easy to cut into veneer.

Durability: Heartwood vulnerable to decay fungi and is rated as very susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites. Sapwood also susceptible to attack by powder- post beetles.

Preservation: Both heartwood and sapwood are easily impregnated with preservatives using either pressure or open-tank processes.

Uses: General construction work where dimensional stability is not critical, fiberboard, particleboard, plywood, box shook, and cooperage.

Additional Reading (24), (46), (71), (75)

Cecropia peltata

Trumpet-Wood

Family: Moraceae

Other Common Names: Yagrumo (Cuba, Venezuela), Guarumo (Mexico, Colombia), Boessi papaja (Surinam), Imbaúba (Brazil), Cetico, Tacuna (Peru), Ambahú (Argentina).

Distribution: Throughout tropical America. Abundant in open areas and in forests, both virgin and cutover, often forming almost pure stands.

The Tree

A medium-sized tree with trunk diameters to 24 in. and height to 70 ft, more commonly 40 ft tall and 8 to 12 in. in diameter at maturity. Stems are hollow, often housing small stinging ants.

The Wood

General Characteristics: No distinction between sapwood and heartwood, whitish when freshly cut becoming pale brown or oatmeal colored upon exposure. Fairly lustrous; texture coarse; grain generally straight; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.26 to 0.34, air- dry density 20 to 26 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-in. standard; second set based on 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (6) 4,040 860 1,870 12% 6,490 1,090 3,490

Green (30) 6,100 1,210 3,240 15% 8,800 4,300

Janka side hardness 220 lb for green and 320 lb for dry material. Forest Products Laboratory toughness 62 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (5/8-in. specimen). Both these tests on wood with basic specific gravity of 0.26.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons rapidly but with moderate to severe warp and little checking. The wood is also easy to kiln-dry without excessive seasoning degrade. A modified schedule, T7-B6, is suggested for 4/4 stock and a modified T5-B5 for 8/4(50). Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.0% tangential 6.2%; volumetric 8.3%.

Working Properties: Seasoned wood is very easy to saw and machine compared with green wood. Surfaces tend to tear and fuzz in shaping and turning but gives good results in planing and sanding. Nails readily and holds screws well. Difficult to finish with varnish or lacquer.

Durability: The wood is very susceptible to attack by decay fungi, termites, and other insects. Prone to blue stain.

Preservation: If incised or where there is high end-grain exposure, the wood will treat well using either pressure-vacuum systems or open tank.

Uses: Wood resembles North American black cottonwood in both density and mechanical properties. Used for plywood core stock, particleboard, matchsticks, boxes and crates, and excelsior. Neutral sulfite semichemical pulps were converted into bond papers of excellent brightness and appearance.

Additional Reading (6), (30), (45), (50)

Cedrela spp. Spanish-cedar Cedro

Family: Meliaceae

Other Common Names: Cedro (Central and South America), Acajou rouge (French West Indies), Care rouge (French Guiana), Ceder (Surinam).

Distribution: Cedrela occurs from Mexico to Argentina and is found in all countries except Chile. Trees make their best growth on rich, well-drained humid sites but may also compete favorably on drier hillsides; intolerant of water- logged locations.

The Tree

Under favorable conditions will reach heights over 100 ft and diameters 3 to 6 ft above the substantial buttresses. Straight cylindrical boles clear for 40 to 60 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood pinkish- to reddish brown when freshly cut, becoming red or dark reddish brown, sometimes with a purplish tinge, after exposure; sharply to rather poorly demarcated from the pinkish to white sapwood. Grain usually straight, sometimes interlocked; texture rather fine and uniform to coarse and uneven; luster medium to high and golden; distinctive cedary odor usually pronounced, some specimens with bitter taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) very variable ranging from 0.30 to 0.60, averaging about 0.40; air-dry density ranges from 23 to 47 pcf, averaging about 30 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-in. standard; second set 2- cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 7,510 1,310 3,370 12% 11,530 1,440 6,210

Green (30) 9,100 1,200 4,080 15% 11,750 5,650

Janka side hardness about 550 lb for green material and 600 lb for air dry. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material 106 in.- lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Easy to air-season or kiln-dry, slight warp with little or no checking. Kiln schedule T10-D4S is suggested for 4/4 stock and T8-D3S for 8/4. A 200°F heating for 8 to 17 hours at a relative humidity of 60 percent is suggested to control oil and gum exudates in service. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.2%; tangential 6.3%; volumetric 10.3%. Movement in service rated as small.

Working Properties: Cedro is easy to work with hand and machine tools but somewhat difficult to bore cleanly. Easy to cut into veneer but with some tendency for wooly surfaces to occur; good nailing and gluing properties; stains and finishes well but gums and oils sometimes are a problem in polishing.

Durability: Heartwood is rated as durable but there is some variability with species; resistant to both subterranean and dry-wood termites. Low resistance to attack by marine borers. Wood has excellent weathering characteristics.

Preservation: Heartwood is reported to be extremely resistant to preservation treatments. Reports on treatability of sapwood are conflicting.

Uses: Wood is favored for millwork, cabinets, fine furniture, musical instruments, boat building, patterns, sliced- and rotary-cut veneer, decorative and utility plywoods, cigar wrappers, and cigar boxes. Volatile oils may restrict use for some applications (e.g., clock cases).

Additional Reading (24), (30), (46), (74)

Cedrelinga catenaeformis

Cedro-Rana Tornillo

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Tornillo (Peru), Lacaica, Paricá, Yacayacá (Brazil).

Distribution: Reported in the Loreto and Huanuco Provinces of Peru; encountered most frequently on slopes or hillsides and in the humid terra firma of the Brazilian Amazon region.

The Tree

A large tree 100 to 160 ft tall with a trunk diameter of 5 to 9 ft. Trees felled in Huanuco Province of Peru were up to 4 ft in diameter with merchantable heights of 45 ft and more.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood pale brown with a golden luster; prominently marked with dark red vessel lines; merging gradually into the lighter colored sapwood. Texture coarse; roe grained; odor and taste absent in dry specimens, but fresh-cut timber is reported to emit a disagreeable scent when worked. Compression failures are a common defect.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) reported to be about 0.53 for material collected in Brazil and 0.41 for Peruvian stock. Air-dry density respectively 40 and 31 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (3) 7,600 1,377 3,610

Drying and Shrinkage: No data available on drying characteristics. Volumetric shrinkage (green to ovendry): 11.8%.

Working Properties: Saws woolly but is easy to cut; can be finished smoothly.

Durability: Reported to be probably fairly durable; also reported to have good weathering resistance.

Preservation: No data available.

Uses: General construction, furniture components.

Additional Reading (3),(56)

Ceiba pentandra

Ceiba Silk-Cotton-tree Kapok-tree

Family: Bombacaceae

Other Common Names: Fromager (French West Indies), Pochota, Yaxchè (Mexico), Bonga, Ceiba de lana (Colombia), Ceiba yuca (Venezuela), Sumaúma (Brazil), Toborochi (Bolivia).

Distribution: Throughout the tropical world; from the Tropic of Cancer in Mexico southward through Central America to Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Ecuador. Also West Africa and Malay Peninsula. Characteristically an open-grown tree.

The Tree

A very large tree with a height of 150 ft and a diameter of 7 ft above the buttresses, which often are of plank form and wide spreading; the trunk, which is cylindrical or at times thicker in the middle, is smooth or covered with large conical spines.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood pinkish white to ashy brown when dry and not clearly distinguished from the sapwood. Luster low; grain generally straight, sometimes irregular; texture coarse with a harsh feel; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.25; air-dry density 18 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 2,180 410 1,060 12% 4,330 540 2,380

15% (34) 3,980 2,490

Janka side hardness 220 lb for green wood and 240 lb for dry. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 24 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Air-dries rapidly with little warp or checking; also easy to kiln-dry. Kiln schedule T10-D5S is suggested for 4/4 stock and schedule T8- D4S for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.1%; tangential 4.1%; volumetric 7.7%. Movement in service is rated small.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to machine but not satisfactorily; sawed surfaces are fuzzy; tears the grain in shaping, boring, turning, and mortising, but gives excellent results in planing and sanding. Poor nail- and screw-holding properties. Easy to peel into veneers.

Durability: Laboratory tests indicate nondurable to white-rot fungus attack but durable to very durable when exposed to brown rot. Rated as extremely vulnerable to decay when in ground contact, also very susceptible to insect attack. Logs and lumber often discolored by sap-staining fungi.

Preservation: Easy to treat with good absorption and penetration using either pressure- vacuum systems or open tank methods.

Uses: Plywood, packaging, lumber core stock, light construction, pulp and paper products, also used locally for canoes and rafts. Floss on seeds (kapok) harvested for use in buoys, life belts, stuffing pillows, and similar articles.

Additional Reading (34), (41), (71), (73)

Centrolobium spp.

Arariba Porcupine Wood Canary Wood

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Amarillo guayaquil (Panama, Ecuador), Guayacan hobo, Baláustre (Colombia, Venezuela), Araraúba, Araraúva (Brazil), Morosimo (Paraguay).

Distribution: Five or six species of rather infrequent occurrence from Panama to Ecuador and southern Brazil.

The Tree A medium-sized to large well-formed tree; generally up to 100 ft high with diameters of 30 to 50 in.; commonly to heights of 40 ft and diameters to 16 in. Narrow buttresses to heights of 3 ft in some species.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellow or orange, typically variegated, sometimes "rainbow hued," usually changing to red or brown; rather sharply demarcated from the yellowish sapwood. Luster medium to high; texture fine to rather coarse; grain straight to irregular; some species without odor or taste, others with distinctive odor and sometimes with perceptive taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.61 to 0.69; air-dry density 46 to 53 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-cm standard, second set on 1-in. standard, and third on 2-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (30) 14,200 1,500 5,900 15% 16,800 7,900

12% (24) 18,600 2,130 9,550

12% (44) 17,200 2,440

Janka side hardness 1,030 lb for dry wood. Amsler toughness 288 in.-lb at 15% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to have a moderate drying rate with little to no warp or checking. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock of C. ochroxylon and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.4%; tangential 5.6%; volumetric 8.4%.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to machine with all tools; finishing very smoothly but there may be some fuzzy grain on planing of radial surfaces.

Durability: The wood is reported to be highly resistant to attack by decay fungi, termites and other insects, and marine borers (teredo).

Preservation: impregnation with wood preservatives is only moderate using pressure-vacuum systems, absorption and penetration is negligible using the open-tank method.

Uses: Heavy construction, railroad crossties, fine furniture and cabinet work, flooring, ship components (planking, keel, decking, and trim), turnery, decorative veneers, cooperage.

Additional Reading (24), (30), (44), (56)

Chlorophora tinctoria

Fustic Mora Amarilla

Family: Moraceae

Other Common Names: Bois d'orange (Trinidad), Barossa, Moral (Mexico), Palo de mora (Costa Rica), Dinde, Palo amarillo (Colombia), Mora (Venezuela), Insira (Peru), Amarillo (Bolivia), Taiúva, Amarello (Brazil), Tatayivá-saiyú (Argentina).

Distribution: Widely distributed throughout tropical America. A northern form is found in coastal lowlands of southern Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and northern South America. A southern form is found in Misiones (Argentina), Paraguay, and southern Brazil, but nowhere abundant.

The Tree

Forest-grown trees are well formed, frequently 20 to 24 in. in diameter and 60 to 80 ft high with a clear trunk of 20 to 35 ft. In certain areas the trees attain diameters of 40 in. and heights of 90 to 120 ft. Open-grown trees are short, branchy, and often with a crooked bole.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Fresh heartwood is bright yellow, drying to golden yellow, changing upon exposure to brown or russet, sometimes with a reddish tinge; sharply demarcated from the nearly white sapwood. Luster high; texture usually fine; grain variable, often interlocked; odor and taste lacking or not distinctive.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.71 to 0.78; air- dry density 52 to 60 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-in. standard, second on 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 14,840 1,590 6,860 12% 19,560 2,180 11,080

Green (30) 20,000 1,920 9,700 15% 21,600 11,900

Janka side hardness 2,190 lb for green material and 2,380 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 229 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Air-dries at a moderate to fast rate with only slight checking and warping. No data on kiln-drying available but air-drying followed by a mild kiln schedule is suggested. Despite its high density, the wood has exceptionally low shrinkage. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.4%; tangential 5.4%; volumetric 7.8%.

Working Properties: The wood is somewhat difficult to work with hand and power tools but finishes smoothly and glues well.

Durability: Heartwood very durable in resistance to both white-rot and brown-rot fungi and also has excellent weathering characteristics. The heartwood is also rated as highly resistant to dry-wood termites. Data on resistance to marine- borer attack are conflicting.

Preservation: The heartwood is not responsive to preservation treatments; sapwood should treat satisfactorily if incised.

Uses: Heavy construction, decking, planking, and framing for boats, exterior and interior flooring, turnery, furniture parts, tool handles, railroad ties, and wood tanks. Also contains the coloring maclurin long used as a yellowish-brown or khaki dye.

Additional Reading (30), (41), (56), (74)

Clarisia racemosa

Oiticica Amarela Aji

Family: Moraceae

Other Common Names: Caraco, Aji, Arracacho (Colombia), Matapalo (Ecuador), Chichillica (Peru), Guariuba, Oity (Brazil).

Distribution: Widely distributed in Brazil and extends into northeastern Peru, the Serrania de San Lucas region of Colombia, and the Venezuelan Guianas; grows scattered or in small clumps.

The Tree

Attains a height of 130 ft with well-formed nonbuttressed trunk sometimes 36 in. in diameter and free of branches for 50 to 60 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood bright yellow, becoming brown or russet, but retaining a golden luster upon exposure; sharply defined from the thin white sapwood. Texture medium to coarse; grain variable, often decidedly roey with attractive figure; dry specimens without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) averages about 0.53; air-dry density 40 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-cm standard, second on 1-in. standard, and third on 2-in. standard.]

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (30) 10,400 1,150 5,350 15% 11,600

12% (24) 16,700 2,340 9,620 12% (21) 18,000 2,360 9,070

Janka side hardness averages about 1,400 lb for dry material. Forest Products Laboratory toughness 159 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (5/8-in. specimen). Drying and Shrinkage: Air-dries rapidly. No data on degrade or on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.9%; tangential 6.1%; volumetric 9.0%. Reported to have good stability when manufactured.

Working Properties: Easy to work and is rated fair to good in all machining operations. Cross-grained material requires sharp tools to produce a smooth surface; fresh wood saws wooly.

Durability: Tentative field trials in Venezuela indicate heartwood to be durable and resistant to termite attack. Elsewhere the wood is rated not very durable in ground contact.

Preservation: Heartwood not responsive to treatment by pressure-vacuum systems or by open tank. Sapwood treatable if incised.

Uses: General construction, flooring, and furniture components.

Additional Reading (21), (24), (30), (56)

Clathrotropis spp.

Aromata

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Alma negra, Sapan (Colombia), Cabarí, Timbó pau, Timbó rana (Brazil).

Distribution: Several species distributed in the Guianas, central and northern Amazon region, and into the Magdalena Valley of Columbia.

The Tree

The trees are unbuttressed but basally swollen, usually 16 to 20 in. in diameter and 90 to 100 ft tall; the main stem often clear for 40 ft and more. Diameters of 4 to 5 ft are reported in Trinidad. Trees thrive in swampy areas and on hillsides having high rainfall.

The Wood

General Characteristics: The sapwood is thick, sharply defined, yellowish to brownish white. Heartwood is pinkish brown to dark brown streaked with light colored parenchyma bands. Grain is straight to irregular; texture medium to very coarse; luster medium to dull; odorless and tasteless.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) averages from 0.80 to 0.97; air-dry density 60 to 75 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (20) 23,100 16,500

12% (21) 28,600 3,500 13,900

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content 2,960 lb.

Drying and Shrinkage: Wood is moderately difficult to dry with a tendency to warp and check. No data on kiln schedules available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 5.0%; tangential 6.7%; volumetric 11.9%.

Working Properties: The wood is reported to be difficult to saw and difficult to work on all machines except dresses well in planing and sanding. The wood finishes smoothly and takes a high polish; easy to glue.

Durability: Reported to be moderately to highly resistant to attack by decay fungi; moderately resistant to subterranean termites, and probably has moderate to low resistance to marine borers.

Preservation: No data available, heartwood probably not treatable.

Uses: Heavy construction, furniture components, and flooring.

Additional Reading (20),(21), (46)

Copaifera spp.

Copaiba

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Copaiba (generally in Latin America), Camiba, Cabino blanco (Panama), Cabimo, Palo de aceite (Venezuela), Canime, Copaiba (Colombia), Copaibarana, Copahyba (Brazil), Cupay (Paraguay), Timbó-y-atá (Argentina).

Distribution: Varies with species and ranges from Panama southward to Argentina and Paraguay. C. reticulata has wide distribution in the Amazon region and is the source of copaiba balsam.

The Tree

May reach a height of 100 ft and a trunk diameter of 4 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood reddish brown, variable often with a coppery hue, and sometimes streaked; not very sharply demarcated from the pinkish gray or nearly white sapwood. Luster rather silky and golden; grain usually straight; texture medium; oily exudations sometimes present, the woods of all species contain gum or oil canals. Dry material without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.46 to 0.64; air-dry density 34 to 49 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard, the second on the 2-cm standard, and the third on the 1-in. standard.]

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 12,980 2,270 6,070 12% 21,200 2,650 10,700

Green (30) 8,580 1,350 3,900 15% 11,300 5,980

12% (41) 12,900 6,500

Janka side hardness 1,390 lb for green material, 1,740 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 204 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to have a slow to moderate rate of drying. C aromatica air-dried with bow being the only degrade. No information available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.4%; tangential 9.2%; volumetric 14.6%. Working Properties: The wood is easy to work and finishes very smoothly; a small amount of material showed fuzzy grain after planing.

Durability: C. officinalis is reported to be vulnerable to attack by decay fungi, insects, and dry-wood termites. C. aromatica and other species are reported to be highly durable.

Preservation: & off;c;ne/;s heartwood as well as other species difficult to very difficult to preserve using pressure-vacuum systems; good absorption and penetration of sapwood is reported.

Uses: Carpentry, general construction, interior trim, furniture, turnery, suggested for particleboard and excelsior cement board. Trees are highly valued for their gum or balsam.

Additional Reading (30), (41), (44), (75)

Cordia spp.

(hard-Wooded, dark-colored Gerascanthus group) Canalete

Family: Boraginaceae

Other Common Names: Anacahuite, Baría (Cuba), Siricote, Bocote, Cupanè, Amapa asta (Mexico), Canalete (Colombia, Venezuela), Louro pardo (Brazil), Loro negro (Argentina).

Distribution: The several species of this group are found in northern Florida, West Indies, Central America, and southward to Brazil and Argentina.

The Tree

A small to large tree, sometimes 100 ft. tall. In Mexico the trees are found in Tropical Dry zones with precipitation of about 1,000 mm and up to 500 m elevations.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood tobacco colored to reddish brown, with irregular dark brown or blackish streaks and variegations, with more or less of an oily or waxy appearance; rather sharply demarcated from the grayish or yellowish sapwood. Luster variable; texture fine to medium, grain variable; taste not distinctive; scent mildly fragrant, at least when fresh.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) ranges from 0.63 to 0.84; air-dry density 48 to 65 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-in. standard; second set on 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (19) 13,700 1,390 12% 15,700 1,580

Green (30) 13,700 1,760 8,500 15% 18,500 9,000

Janka side hardness 2,200 lb for air-dry material. Amsler toughness 340 in.-lb at 15% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is difficult to dry; readily develops surface checking and end splitting. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.0%; tangential 7.4%; volumetric 11.6%. Holds its place well when manufactured.

Working Properties: A readily worked timber, finishing very smoothly.

Durability: Durability is rated high.

Preservation: No data available.

Uses: Fine furniture, cabinet work, turnery, flooring, rotary and sliced veneer, and rifle stocks.

Additional Reading (19), (30), (56)

Cordia spp.

(soft-wooded, light-colored Alliodora group) Laurel Blanco

Family: Boraginaceae

Other Common Names: C. goeldiana: Freijo, Frei jorge (Brazil); C. alliodora: Laurel blanco, Pardillo (Venezuela), Bojón (Mexico), Louro (Brazil].

Distribution: The several commercial species have a range that includes southern Mexico to the southern edge of the tropics in South America. Freijo is found in the Atlantic zone of Para and in the Tocantins and Xingu River basins of Brazil.

The Tree

Varies in size in different regions; frequently 40 to 60 ft in height with diameters of 18 to 24 in.; in areas of optimum growth it attains diameters of 36 in. and heights of 120 ft. Narrow buttresses are commonly 6 ft or less in height.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellowish to brown, uniform or more or less streaked and variegated; light colored material not clearly differentiated from sapwood. Luster is medium to high, often rich and golden; texture very variable from fine to coarse; grain usually straight to shallowly interlocked; dark- colored specimens have spicy scent.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.44 to 0.52; air-dry density 34 to 40 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard]

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 9,050 1,280 4,040 12% 12,180 1,510 6,330

Janka side hardness averages about 910 lb for green material and about 1,000 lb for dry. Forest Products Laboratory toughness ranged from 138 in.-lb to 195 in.,- lb, averages for green and dry material (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons rapidly with only slight warping and checking. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-01 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.4%; tangential 7.1%; volumetric 9.2% (C. alliodora). Holds in place well after manufacture.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work and finishes smoothly; readily glued.

Durability: The heartwood is rated as durable upon exposure to both white-rot and brown-rot fungi but degree of durability appears to be related to the coloring of the wood. Also reported to have good resistance to dry-wood termites. The wood has good weathering characteristics and absorbs moisture at a moderate rate. Not resistant to attack by marine borers in some areas, but C. alliodora is reported to have high resistance in Panama waters.

Preservation: Heartwood is not receptive to preservation treatments; sapwood absorption is adequate but with marginal penetration.

Uses: General construction, millwork, fine cabinet and furniture components, flooring, decorative veneer, cooperage, boat construction; for some applications used as a substitute for teak, walnut, or mahogany.

Additional Reading (30), (56), (73), (74)

Couma macrocarpa

Cow Tree

Family: Apocynaceae

Other Common Names: Perillo negro, Avichuri (Colombia), Guaimaro macho, Vacahosca (Venezuela), Dukaballi (Guyana), Ama-apa (Surinam), Leche-caspi (Peru), Cumá assú, Sorva (Brazil].

Distribution: An Amazonian species but also found in the Cararè-Opon and Serrania de San Lucas regions of the Rio Magdalena in Colombia. Found mostly in low areas.

The Tree

Total tree heights 60 to 80 ft, with trunk diameters of 20 to 24 in.; straight, well-formed stems.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Wood cream colored or pale brown, often with a pinkish tinge; no sharp demarcation between sapwood and heartwood. Grain fairly straight to interlocked; texture medium; luster rather low to medium; odor and taste not distinctive.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.50, air-dry density 38 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-cm standard; second set based on 2-in. standard).

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (21) 16,700 9,280

12% (20) 15,900 7,100

Janka side hardness 980 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: This wood is easy to both air-dry and kiln-dry with little or no degrade due to warping or checking. No kiln schedules available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.9%; tangential 6.4%; volumetric 10.4%.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work with all tools, however there is some difficulty to generate smooth surfaces on quartersawn stock due to the interlocked grain. Easy to nail and screw.

Durability: Natural durability is low and prone to attack by blue-stain fungi.

Preservation: No data available but suggested uses in Colombia indicate the wood is responsive to preservation treatments.

Uses: Interior millwork, general construction, furniture components, veneer for plywood, particleboard and fiberboard, boxes, and crates.

Additional Reading (20), (21), (56), (71)

Couratari spp

Mahot Tauary

Family: Lecythidaceae

Other Common Names: Congolo-Garapelo (Panama), Tabarí, Tauarí, (Venezuela), Coco Cabuyo (Colombia), Ingiepipa (Surinam), Tauary (Brazil).

Distribution: Several commercial species range from Costa Rica and Panama southward to the Guianas and Brazilian Amazon.

The Tree

Up to 120 ft high with trunk diameters 3 to 4 ft; boles are well formed above the stout buttresses.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Sapwood not distinct from the heartwood which is cream colored with a pinkish or yellowish tinge. Luster rather low to high; grain straight or uniformly interlocked; texture medium to coarse; odor and taste usually lacking, odor reported as fetid in some species. Silica to 0.8% reported.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.50; air-dry density 37 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 9,240 1,730 4,260 12% 13,520 1,800 7,460

12% (20) 17,200 8,650

15% (34) 14,200 1,730 7,600

Janka side hardness 880 lb at 12% moisture content and 740 lb for green material. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 124 in.-lb (5/8)-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Wood has a moderate rate of drying with slight surface checking and warp. No dry kiln schedule data available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.1%; tangential 7.3%; volumetric 11.3%.

Working Properties: The wood is rated fair to good in all machining operations. High silica content in some species requires specially tipped cutters.

Durability: Considerable variability of heartwood resistance to decay fungi is reported, from durable to nondurable. Some species show fair resistance to marine borer attack.

Preservation: Heartwood and sapwood easily treated by both pressure and open tank systems with good absorption and penetration.

Uses, General interior construction and carpentry work, boxes and crates, furniture components, veneer and plywood, and railroad crossties (treated).

Additional Reading (20),(24), (34), (74)

M 150 273-21Mahot or Tauary (Couratari spp.) grows from Panama south to the Brazilian Amazon. Trunk diameters may exceed 4 feet above the stout buttresses. In tropical American moist forests, single species usually make up less than 5 percent of the stand volume.

Cupressus lusitanica

Mexican Cypress

Family: Cupressaceae

Other Common Names: Ciprès (Latin America).

Distribution: Native to Mexico and probably Guatemala but now widely planted at high elevations throughout the tropical world.

The Tree

Height growth may exceed 100 ft with a bole diameter of 2 to 3 ft, sometimes reaching 5 ft. Logs are usually well shaped, straight, and cylindrical.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellowish, pale brown, or pinkish, sometimes streaked or variegated; sapwood paler, usually sharply demarcated. Grain straight to irregular; texture fine and uniform; luster rather high; fragrantly scented.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.43; air-dry density 32 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard; plantation grown)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (27) 12,400 1,390 5,820

Green (66) 6,160 925 2,880 12% 10,270 1,020 5,380

Janka side hardness 340 lb for green material and 460 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: Air-dries very rapidly with little or no end or surface checking and only slight warp. Kiln schedule T10-D5S is suggested for 4/4 stock and T8-D4S for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: volumetric 8.0%.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work with hand and machine tools, easy to nail, and stains and polishes well.

Durability: Reports on durability are conflicting.

Preservation: The heartwood is reported to be not treatable by the open-tank process and to have an irregular response to pressure-vacuum systems. Treatment may be improved considerably by incising.

Uses: Posts and poles, furniture components, and general construction.

Additional Reading (27), (56), (66)

Cybistax donnell-smithii syn. Tabebuia donnell-smithii

Primavera

Family: Bignoniaceae

Other Common Names: Duranga (Mexico), San Juan (Honduras), Palo blanco (Guatemala), Cortez, Cortez blanco (El Salvador).

Distribution: Southwestern Mexico, Pacific coast of Guatemala and El Salvador, and north central Honduras. Occurs in mixed forests on well-drained limestone, volcanic, or alluvial soils from sea level to an elevation of about 800 ft.

The Tree Attains a height of 100 ft, commonly with trunk diameters of 2 to 3 ft, occasionally 4. Bole is clear and smooth 24 to 40 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: The wood is cream colored, yellowish white to pale yellowish brown, often more or less striped. Sapwood not clearly demarcated, slightly paler than the heartwood. Grain straight to roey; texture medium to rather coarse, uniform; luster fairly high; odorless and tasteless.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.40; air-dry density 29 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard]< lit> Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Psi 1,000 psi Psi

Green (74) 7,180 990 3,510 12% 9,530 1,040 5,600

Janka side hardness about 680 lb for both green and dry material. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 75 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Wood is easy to air-season, drying rapidly with no checking and only slight warp. A modified kiln schedule T6-F3 is suggested for 4/4 stock (68). Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.1%; tangential 5.1%; volumetric 9.1%. Holds its place well after manufacture.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work in all operations even though there may be considerable grain variation; finishes smoothly and acquires an attractive polish. Produces a good quality veneer.

Durability: Laboratory tests indicate a variable resistance to both brown-rot and white-rot fungi, similar to field observations. Weathering characteristics are good.

Preservation: No data available on treatability.

Uses: Fine furniture, cabinet work, decorative veneers, and interior trim.

Additional Reading (35), (56), (68), (74)

Cynodendron spp. and Chrysophyllum spp,

Caimito Star-Apple

Family: Sapotaceae

Other Common Names: Caimitillo, Lechecillo (Puerto Rico), Canela (Mexico), Caimito morado (Venezuela), Kokoritiballi (Guyana), Balata blanca (Peru), Massaranduba-rana (Brazil), Aguay, Carne de Vaca (Argentina).

Distribution: Widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions with various species found in southern Mexico to Misiones, Argentina.

The Tree

Often small to medium-sized tree 35 to 65 ft high, but sometimes 75 to 100 ft; trunk diameters up to 24 in. An attractive ornamental and shade tree widely planted (Chrysophyllum cainito).

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood variable in color from pale brown or pinkish to rather dark brown, with gradual transition to the sapwood. Luster rather low to medium; texture fine to medium; grain fairly straight; odor and taste absent or not distinctive. A silica content of over 0.84% is reported (C. maytenoides).

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) mostly from 0.60 to 0.90; air-dry density 50 to 70 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (1-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (41) 20,000 11,500

12% (24) 23,200 3,300 12,600

Forest Products Laboratory toughness at 12% moisture content 128 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-dries somewhat slowly and air-drying prior to kiln-drying is suggested. No kiln schedule data available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 6.4%; tangential 8.6%; volumetric 15.2%.

Working Properties: A notably hard and abrasive wood that requires wear-resistant cutters for satisfactory machining; can be finished smoothly.

Durability: The Venezuelan species are reported to be vulnerable to attack by decay fungi as well as termites.

Preservation: Heartwood treats poorly by both pressure-vacuum and open-tank systems. Sapwood should have adequate treatment if incised.

Uses: General construction, carpentry, furniture, and turnery. C. ~a~n;'o is favored for its edible fruit.

Additional Reading (24), (41), (56)

Dacryodes excelsa

Gommier Candle Tree

Family: Burseraceae

Other Common Names: Tabonuco (Puerto Rico), Gommier blanc (Guadeloupe), Gommier montagne (Martinique).

Distribution: Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles from St. Kitts to Grenada. Generally in small groups along upper slopes, but forms almost pure stands at high elevations in Dominica.

The Tree

Reaches a height of 100 ft or more and diameters of 3 to 5 ft; straight well- formed clear boles; unbuttressed.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is a uniform pale brown with a purplish cast when first cut, turning to a lustrous pinkish brown when seasoned, resembling mahogany; clearly demarcated from narrow grayish sapwood. Texture fine to medium; grain more or less roey with attractive ribbon stripe; odor and taste lacking. Silica content of 0.50% is reported. Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.52; air-dry density 40 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (48) 9,330 1,200 4,530 12% 13,030 1,530 7,150

Janka side hardness 690 lb for green material and 900 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons easily with only minor degrade in the form of slight warp and end checking and with no apparent surface checking. No dry kiln data available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.1%; tangential 6.4%; volumetric 10.5%.

Working Properties: A moderately good machining wood; cuts and saws easily but, because of an abundance of silica, rapidly dulls saw teeth and other cutting edges. The wood finishes smoothly and is easy to lacquer or varnish.

Durability: The heartwood is only slightly resistant to attack by decay fungi when in ground contact and is very susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites; not resistant to marine borer attack.

Preservation: The heartwood and sapwood are difficult to treat with preservatives by either pressure or nonpressure methods. incising improves absorption of sapwood.

Uses: Furniture and cabinet work, possible veneer wood, general construction. The trees are scarred near the base to obtain a fragrant resin exudate used to make candies and for medicinal purposes.

Additional Reading (45), (46), (56)

Dalbergia nigra

Brazilian Rosewood Jacarandá Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Palissandre du Brèsil (French), Jacaranda de Brasil (Spanish), Cabiuna, Caviuna, Jacarandá (Brazil).

Distribution: Of scattered occurrence in the eastern forests of the State of Bahia and southward to Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro and inland to include Minas Gerais. Because of long-time exploitation, the tree has become very scarce in the more accessible regions.

The Tree

Sometimes attains a height of 125 ft, with short irregular bole, often buttressed, trunk diameters 3 to 4 ft. Old trees are generally hollow and also lose much of their volume when the undesired sapwood is hewed off. Old defective stems yield the most attractive wood.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is various shades of brown to chocolate or violet, irregularly and conspicuously streaked with black; dark specimens with oily or waxy appearance and feel; sharply demarcated from the white sapwood. Grain generally straight; texture medium to rather coarse; luster medium; fragrant rose-like odor, taste distinctive.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) ranges from 0.62 to 0.73; air-dry density 47 to 56 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 14,140 1,840 5,510 12% 18,970 1,880 9,600

Janka side hardness 2,440 lb for green material and 2,720 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 151 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen). Above values for Brazilian De;berg;e with a basic specific gravity of 0.80.

Drying and Shrinkage: The timber needs to be dried slowly to prevent checking. Once seasoned it absorbs moisture slowly and is dimensionally stable in service. Kiln schedule T3-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.9%; tangential 4.6%; volumetric 8.5%.

Working Properties: This wood has excellent working properties and veneers well. Some specimens may be too oily to take a good polish.

Durability: Heartwood is very resistant to decay and insect attack.

Preservation: No data available (the uses of this species are such that a preservation treatment would not be desirable even if the wood would be receptive).

Uses: Decorative veneers, fine furniture and cabinets, parts of musical instruments, brush backs, knife and other handles, fancy turnery, piano cases, marquetry.

Additional Reading (22), (56), (75)

Dalbergia retusa

Cocobolo

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Granadillo (Mexico, Guatemala), Funera (El Salvador), Palo negro (Honduras), Nambar (Nicaragua, Costa Rica), Cocobolo, Cocobolo prieto (Panama).

Distribution: Pacific regions of Central America and extending from Panama to southwestern Mexico. Of limited occurrence, usually in the drier uplands.

The Tree

A small to medium-sized tree 45 to 60 ft high with trunk diameters of 20 to 24 in.; usually of poor form.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Somewhat variable in color when freshly sawn but heartwood usually becoming a deep rich orange red with black striping or mottling on exposure. Texture fine; grain straight to interlocked; oily; without distinctive taste, odor slightly pungent and fragrant when worked. Fine dust may cause dermatitis.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.80 to 0.98; air- dry density 62 to 76 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: No data available, but is denser and stronger than Brazilian rosewood (see D. nigra).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to have excellent drying properties, free of surface and end checking. A kiln schedule similar to T1-B1 has been suggested. Shrinkages usually low; high stability in use. Very low moisture absorption.

Working Properties: Reported to have excellent machining characteristics; natural oils give the wood a good polish, but make it unsuitable for gluing. Fine dust may produce rash resembling ivy poisoning.

Durability: Durability is high, has very high resistance to marine borer attack.

Preservation: No data available.

Uses: Highly favored in the cutlery trade for handles, inlay work, brush backs, musical and scientific instruments, jewelry boxes, chessmen, and other specialty items.

Additional Reading (55), (56)

Dalbergia stevensonii

Honduras Rosewood

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Palissandre du Honduras (French), Palisandro de Honduras (Spanish), Honduras Rosenholz (German).

Distribution: Reported only in Belize (British Honduras) occurring in fairly large patches along rivers but also on inter-riverain and drier areas; mostly between Sarstoon and Monkey Rivers.

The Tree

Attains a height of 50 to 100 ft, with trunk diameters to 3 ft. Boles are often fluted and short, commonly forked at about 20 to 25 ft from the ground.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is pinkish brown to purple with alternating dark and light zones forming a very attractive figure, distinct from 1- to 2-in.- thick yellow sapwood. Texture medium to rather fine; grain generally straight to slightly roey; luster low to medium; fresh wood has an aromatic odor which dissipates with age, taste not distinctive to slightly bitter.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.75 to 0.88; air- dry density 58 to 68 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: No data available.

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to air-dry slowly with a marked tendency to check. Kiln schedule T3-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage values similar to other American rosewoods which are unusually low. Holds its place well after manufacturing.

Working Properties: Moderately difficult to saw and machine due to its hardness, dulls cutting edges; tends to ride over cutters. Excellent for turning and finishes well if not too oily.

Durability: Heartwood is highly durable, reported to be moderately resistant to termites.

Preservation: No data available.

Uses: Parts of musical instruments including percussion bars of xylophones, veneers for fine furniture and cabinets, brush backs, knife handles, fine turnery, many specialty items.

Additional Reading (22), (46), (56)

Dendropanax arboreus

Angelica Tree

Family: Araliaceae

Other Common Names: Polio (Puerto Rico), Lengua de vaca (Dominican Republic), Mano de oso, Palo santo (Mexico), Nagua blanca, Vaquero (Panama), Quesito, Pama (Venezuela), Banco (Colombia], Maria molle (Brazil).

Distribution: Common and widespread in tropical America, West Indies, Mexico, and southward to Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, and Bolivia. Frequently used for shade in coffee plantations.

The Tree

Typically a small tree, rarely up to 75 ft in height with a trunk diameter up to 25 in.; wide-spreading crown. The Wood

General Characteristics: There is no color differentiation between heartwood and sapwood; cream colored to grayish yellow. Grain is straight; texture medium and uniform; luster low to medium; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.40; air-dry density 31 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-in. standard; second set on 1-in. standard.]

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (44) 10,400 1,640

12% (41) 9,300 4,400

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content 725 lb for Panama material and 530 lb for Venezuela material.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-dries rapidly without developing degrade due to checking or warping. No kiln schedule data available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 5.1%; tangential 8.3%; volumetric 13.8%.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work but tends to develop fuzzy grain during planing. A poor wood for turnery. Easy to cut into veneer.

Durability: The wood is very susceptible to attack by decay fungi and insects, also prone to blue stain.

Preservation: The wood is easy to treat with pressure-vacuum systems to get complete penetration and absorptions up to 20 pcf.

Uses: Boxes and crates, general carpentry and interior construction, utility furniture, millwork, veneer and plywood, particleboard.

Additional Reading (26), (41), (44)

Dialium guianense Jutahy

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Guapaque (Mexico), Paleta (Guatemala, Honduras), Tamarindo montero (Nicaragua), Hauso (Panama), Tamarindo (Colombia), Cacho (Venezuela), Huitillo (Peru), Jataí-peba, Parajuba (Brazil).

Distribution: From southern Mexico through Central America to the Peruvian Amazon and Bahia and Matto Grosso, Brazil. In parts of its range the tree is very common on well-drained clay soils or sandy soils.

The Tree

Reaches a height of 115 ft with trunk diameters 24 to 30 in. above the narrow buttresses. Boles are cylindrical and clear to 50 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood uniform brown or reddish brown, becoming darker upon exposure; very distinct but not sharply demarcated from the thick whitish or yellowish sapwood. Luster medium; texture fine to medium; grain straight to interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste. Silica content reported to be as high as 1.83%.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.81 to 0.93; air- dry density 63 to 73 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-in. standard; second and third sets based on 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (44) 24,400 2,920

12% (71) 34,000 15,700

Green (31) 23,800 3,070 11,000 15% 28,800 13,900

Janka side hardness about 4,000 lb at 12% moisture content. Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-dries at a moderate to slow rate with a tendency to moderate surface and end checking; warp is reported to be slight to severe. Kiln schedule data not available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 5.3%; tangential 8.9%; volumetric 13.9%.

Working Properties: The wood is rated as very difficult to work because of its high density and high silica content. Specially tipped cutters are required to effectively saw or machine this wood. Torn grain is common.

Durability: The durability of this wood is reported to be high and with high resistance to insect attack.

Preservation: The wood is rated as difficult to treat.

Uses: Heavy construction, railway crossties, industrial flooring, turnery, vehicle framing.

Additional Reading (31), (44), (71)

Dialyanthera spp.

Cuangare "Virola"

Family: Myristicaceae

Other Common Names: Fruta dorado (Costa Rica), Miguelario (Panama), Otoba (Venezuela) Cuangare (Colombia) Coco (Ecuador).

Distribution: Main commercial supply from the species growing in almost pure stands in the Pacific coastal fresh water swamp forests of Colombia and Ecuador. Other species in upland forests of Costa Rica, Panama, and Venezuela.

The Tree

May reach a height of 100 ft and a trunk diameter of 50 in.; boles are well formed and clear to 50 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: There is no demarcation between sapwood and heartwood, pale pinkish brown. Luster medium to high; grain generally straight; texture variable; without odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.36; air-dry density 28 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard]

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (7) 4,020 1,010 2,080 12% 7,300 1,520 4,760

12% (44) 10,400 1,900

Janka side hardness 235 lb for green material and 375 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: Colombian cuangare air-seasons and kiln-dries rapidly but material containing "brownheart" or wet streaks tends to collapse and has irregular drying rates. in kiln drying, a modified T5-C3 schedule is suggested for 4/4 stock (51). Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.2%; tangential 9.4%; volumetric 12.0%.

Working Properties: Generally machines well if sharp knives are used and dressed with the grain. Easy to nail and glue; takes stain, paint, and clear finishes well.

Durability: Heartwood is nondurable and is susceptible to insect attack. Wood is prone to blue stain and requires rapid extraction and conversion.

Preservation: The wood is rated as moderately easy to preserve with uniform penetration of treating solutions.

Uses: Core stock, moldings, paneling, particleboard, general carpentry, and furniture components.

Additional Reading: (7), (44), (51), (57), (58)

Dicorynia guianensis

Basralocus Angèlique

Family: Leguminosae Other Common Names: Basralokus, Barakaroeballi (Surinam), Angèlique bƒtárd, Angèlique gris (French Guiana). Another species, Dicorynia paraensis is found in the Brazilian Amazon and is called Angelica do Pará.

Distribution: Abundant in eastern Surinam and western French Guiana where it may make up 10% of the forest stands. Best growth on deep, loamy, well-drained soils of lowland plains but also found in wet areas.

The Tree

Well-formed tree to a height of 150 ft and diameters to 5 ft but more commonly to 3 ft Boles are clear for 60 to 80 ft over heavy buttresses.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood reddish brown gray to reddish- or yellowish brown sharply demarcated from narrow brownish-white sapwood. Texture medium; unusual subsurface luster; grain usually straight, sometimes somewhat interlocked; no distinctive odor or taste. Vessels are prominent as long brown lines on side grain producing an attractive figure. Silica content reported 0.20 to 1.70% and as high as 2.92%.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.65; air-dry density 50 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 11,410 1,840 5,590 12% 17,390 2,190 8,770

Janka side hardness 1,100 lb. for green material and 1,290 lb. at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and air-dry material is 151 in.-lb. (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Moderately difficult to season, dries rapidly but with a tendency to moderate checking and slight warping. A kiln schedule similar to T2- B2 has been suggested. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.6%; tangential 8.2%; volumetric 14.0%. Reported to hold its place well after manufacture. Heartwood quite resistant to moisture absorption. Working Properties: Working properties vary according to density and silica content but generally works well and finishes smoothly. Specially tipped cutters are suggested particularly for dried wood. Glues well.

Durability: Heartwood is resistant to very resistant to attack by decay fungi but is somewhat susceptible to dry-wood termites. The wood is resistant to attack by marine borers.

Preservation: No data available but is reported as probably extremely resistant to preservative treatment.

Uses: Marine construction and general heavy construction, railroad crossties, industrial flooring, ship decking, planking, and framing, piling, parquet blocks and strips.

Additional Reading (46), (72), (74)

Didymopanax morototoni

Morototo

Family: Araliaceae

Other Common Names: Yagrumo macho (Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Venezuela), Chancaro blanco (Mexico), Yarumero (Colombia), Mandioqueira (Brazil), Ambayguazú (Argentina), Morototo, Kasavehout (Surinam), Tinajero (Venezuela).

Distribution: Widespread in the wet forests of tropical America, West Indies and southern Mexico to Bolivia, Brazil, Guianas, and Argentina. Characteristic of open forests, edges of savannas, and former clearings.

The Tree

Tall basally swollen trees to height of 100 ft and more, with trunk diameters to 30 in.; cylindrical bole.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Pale brownish color throughout, without distinction between heartwood and sapwood. Luster medium; texture medium to rather fine; grain usually straight; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) ranges from 0.36 to 0.54; air-dry density 28 to 40 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 1-in. standard; second on the 2-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (24) 12,000 1,810 6,900

12% (44) 13,100 2,340

Janka side hardness reported to vary from 665 lb to 915 lb for material at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness 91 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (5/8-in specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons rapidly but with considerable degrade. Warping is moderate to severe, checking and end splitting is reported to be absent to moderate. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 5.9%; tangential 9.2%; volumetric 14.8%.

Working Properties: The wood works easily with either hand or machine tools but has a tendency to produce fuzzy and torn grain in planing and gives only fair surfaces in most other operations. Takes screws and nails very well and is easy to glue. Can be cut into utility grade veneers.

Durability: The wood is very susceptible to fungus and insect attack as well as attack by dry- wood termites; also prone to blue stain.

Preservation: Absorption and penetration of treating solutions are only fair using either open- tank or pressure-vacuum systems. However, there is good end- grain penetration and so will respond to incising.

Uses: General carpentry and interior construction, utility plywood, boxes and crates, match splints, particleboard, and corestock.

Additional Reading (24), (44), (45)

Diplotropis purpurea

Sucupira

Common Names: Botonallare, Peonía (Venezuela), Tatabu, Aramatta (Guyana), Zwarte kabbes (Surinam), Coeur dehors (French Guiana), Sapupira, Supupira, Sucupira (Brazil).

Distribution: Uplands of the Guianas and in Para and Amazonas in Brazil. Fairly common in and French Guiana, infrequent in Surinam and Guyana.

The Tree

Commonly 90 to 100 ft in height and 16 to 24 in. in diameter, occasionally up to 40 in. The bole is usually straight, cylindrical, unbuttressed, and clear to lengths of 60 to 70 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Freshly cut heartwood is generally chocolate brown turning to a lighter brown when dry, occasionally grayish brown, with fine lighter parenchyma stripes; sharply demarcated from whitish or yellowish sapwood. Texture coarse; grain usually straight to slightly interlocked or slightly wavy; luster medium to high and golden, often with a waxy without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.78; air-dry density 58 pcf.

Mechanical Properties:(First set of values based on the 2-in. standard; second set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 17,400 2,680 8,020 12% 20,560 2,870 12,140

12 (24) 20,900 3,140 12,300

Janka side hardness 1,980 lb for green material and 2,140 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 201 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and shrinkage: The wood is moderately difficult to air season and rapid drying results in some checking and warping. Considerable checking and warping will occur in kiln-drying unless a mild schedule is used; T7-B3 has been suggested for 4/4 stock. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.6%; tangential 7.0%; volumetric 11.8%.

Working properties: The wood is moderately difficult to work and resulting surfaces, especially in planing, are fair to poor due to the coarse texture and frequent grain irregularity. The wood turns well and takes a good finish if filler is first applied.

Durability: In laboratory evaluations, the heartwood is rated very durable in resistance to both white-rot and brown-rot fungi. Other evaluations rate the wood as moderately durable; highly resistant to attack by dry-wood termites; not resistant to marine borers.

Preservation: If there is good end-grain exposure, absorption and penetration of preserving solutions are adequate using either open-tank or pressure-vacuum systems.

Uses: Heavy construction work, boat building, flooring, furniture components, turnery, railroad crossties, and tool handles.

Additional Reading (24), (46), (72), (73)

Dipteryx odorata syn. Coumarouna odorata

Tonka Ebo

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Almendro (Costa Rica, Panama), Sarrapia (Venezuela, Colombia), Cumarú (Brazil), Charapilla, Cumarut (Peru).

Distribution: The Guianas, Venezuela, Colombia, and the Amazon region of Brazil; reaches its best development on well-drained gravelly or sandy sites. Cultivated in many areas for the tonka beans used as a flavoring.

The Tree

A large overstory tree sometimes to 160 ft in height and trunk diameters to 40 in.; unbuttressed cylindrical boles are generally clear to 60 to 80 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Fresh heartwood is reddish brown or purplish brown with light yellowish-brown or purplish streaks; upon exposure gradually' becomes uniform light brown or yellowish brown. Sapwood is distinct, narrow, yellowish brown. Luster rather low to medium; texture fine; grain interlocked; waxy or oily feel; taste not distinctive but may have a vanilla-like or rancid odor.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) ranges from 0.80 to 0.91; air-dry density 62 to 81 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of values based on 2-in. standard; second set on 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 19,290 2,690 9,020 12% 27,270 3,030 13,720

12% (24) 22,400 3,010 13,200

Janka side hardness 2,200 lb for green material and 3,540 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 265 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is rated as easy to air-season with a slight tendency to check and with moderate warping; drying was uniformly rapid. No dry kiln data available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 5.0%; tangential 7.6%; volumetric 12.0%.

Working Properties: The wood is difficult to saw and bore; where severely interlocked grain is not present, the wood planes to a smooth surface. Because of its high density and oily nature, the wood glues poorly.

Durability: The timbers have a reputation for being very durable. Laboratory tests also show the heartwood to be very durable in resistance to both brown-rot and white-rot fungi. The wood has excellent weathering characteristics.

Preservation: Heartwood absorption and penetration of treating solutions using both open-tank and pressure-vacuum systems are inadequate. Sapwood is reported to treat well, particularly with a high end-grain exposure.

Uses: Heavy construction, cogs and shafts, barge and dock fenders, flooring, railroad crossties, pulpmill equipment, tool handles, bearings, turnery. A substitute for lignumvitae. Additional Reading (24), (46), ($6), (74)

Enterolobium cyclocarpum

Guanacaste

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Conocaste, Orejó, Perota (Mexico), Genicero, Jarina (Costa Rica), Corotú (Panama), Orejero, Caro (Colombia), Carocaro (Venezuela).

Distribution: Mexico and southward through Central America to Trinidad, Venezuela, Guyana, and Brazil; often planted as an ornamental.

The Tree

Tree heights 60 to 100 ft with a stout short trunk 3 to 6 ft or more in diameter; large spreading crown.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood brown with various shadings, sometimes with a reddish tinge; sharply demarcated from the whitish sapwood. Grain typically interlocked; texture coarse; without distinctive odor or taste but dust from machining is pungent and irritating to mucous membranes and may cause allergies.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.34; air-dry density 26 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (21) 8,500 1,050 4,900

Green (39) 5,030 610

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content 520 lb.

Drying and Shrinkage: Seasons with little tendency to warp or check. Kiln schedule T6-D4 is suggested for 4/4 stock. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.0%; tangential 5.2%; volumetric 7.2%. Holds its place well when manufactured.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work with hand and machine tools but raised and chipped grain is common in planing as well as rough end grain in shaping. Tension wood is common resulting in fuzzy grain in most operations. Dust from dry wood is an irritant.

Durability: The heartwood is reported to have good resistance to attack by decay fungi; also resistant to dry-wood termite attack.

Preservation: No data available.

Uses: Corestock, pattern wood, paneling, interior trim, furniture components, and veneer.

Additional Reading (21), (39), (56)

Enterolobium schomburgkii

Timbaúba

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Harino (Panama), Menudito (Venezuela), Bougou bati batra, Acacia franc (French Guiana), Timbauba (Brazil), Jebio, Hevio (Bolivia).

Distribution: Central America and southward to the Guianas and northern Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia; preferring noninundated sandy soil.

The Tree

Grows to a height of 120 ft with trunk diameters sometimes reaching 6 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Seasoned heartwood is light yellowish brown sometimes with darker streaks; narrow sapwood is deep cream in color. Grain is usually straight, sometimes interlocked; texture medium; luster low to medium; without odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.82; air-dry density 62 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on 2-in. standard; the third on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 16,490 2,820 7,430 12% 23,540 3,180 11,520

12% (44) 18,200 2,720

12% (24) 21,900 3,120 13,100

Janka side hardness 2,000 lb for green material and 2,330 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 285 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is rated difficult to air-season; moderate crook and surface checking developed in wood dried at a fast to moderate rate. No dry kiln data available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 3.8%; tangential 8.8%; volumetric 13.9%.

Working Properties: The wood is rated as easy to moderately difficult to work, generating only a small amount of fuzzy grain in planing, otherwise finishing smoothly. Workmen occasionally allergic to the dust.

Durability: The wood is rated as very durable in resistance to attack by both white-rot and brown-rot fungi.

Preservation: The heartwood is very difficult to treat and the sapwood is only slightly less so.

Uses: Furniture and cabinet work, heavy construction, railroad crossties, flooring, and tool handles.

Additional Reading (24), (44), (73)

Eperua spp.

Wallaba

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Palo machete (Venezuela), Wallaba (Guyana), Walaba, Bijlhout (Surinam), Wapa (French Guiana), Apá, Apazeiro, Jèbaro (Brazil).

Distribution: Centered in the Guianas but extends into Venezuela and the Amazon region of northern Brazil. Generally occurs in pure stands or as dominants, mostly on acid white sandy soils. Also common in creek valleys and in high savanna forests.

The Tree

Usually 80 to 90 ft high with trunk diameters 16 to 24 in. above the low buttresses. Boles straight, cylindrical, and clear to 40 to 60 ft. Heart rot common.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light to dark red to reddish- or purplish- brown with characteristic dark gummy streaks; sharply demarcated from the narrow grayish- or brownish- white sapwood, also streaked with gum. Texture rather coarse; grain typically straight; luster absent; taste not distinctive but with rancid odor when fresh which disappears on drying.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.78; air-dry density 58 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (42) 15,100 2,180 8,380 12% 20,200 2,130 11,210

Janka side hardness 1,540 lb for green material and 2,040 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: Wood dries very slowly with a marked tendency to check, split, and warp; honeycomb may develop in thick material. Kiln schedule T2-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T2-C1 for 8/4. Air-drying should precede kiln-drying. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.6%; tangential 6.9%; volumetric 10.0%.

Working Properties: Though the wood has a high density, it is easy to work with hand and machine tools; however, high gum exudation clogs saw teeth and cutters. Once kiln dried, gum exudates are not a serious problem in machining; glues and polishes well.

Durability: Heartwood is reported to be very durable, resistant to subterranean termites, and fairly resistant to dry-wood termites. Resistance to marine borers is low.

Preservation: Extremely resistant to preservation treatments.

Uses: Heavy construction, railroad crossties, poles (sapwood peeled), industrial flooring, tank staves, and highly favored for charcoal.

Additional Reading (22), (42), (46), (72)

Eschweilera spp.

Manbarklak Kakeralli

Family: Lecythidaceae

Other Common Names: Oxito, Olleto (Panama), Coco de mono, Montanero (Venezuela), Coco cristal, Tete congo (Colombia), Haudan, Kakeralli (Guyana), Oemanbarklak, Manbarklak (Surinam), Matá-matá, Aterebá, Jarána (Brazil).

Distribution: About 60 species are distributed from eastern Brazil through the Amazon Basin to the Guianas, Trinidad, and Costa Rica.

The Tree

Most species reach heights of 90 to 120 ft with trunk diameters of 16 to 24 in., sometimes up to 40 in. Boles are moderately well formed, 40 to 60 ft long; often somewhat fluted or slightly buttressed.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood of most species is light brown, grayish brown, reddish brown, or brownish buff, sometimes with black streaks, usually distinct from the yellowish sapwood. Luster low; grain typically straight; texture fine and uniform; without distinctive odor or taste. Depending on species, silica content may be as high as 2.4%.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.62 to 0.95, mostly about 0.85; air-dry density ranges from 48 to 74 pcf, averaging about 64.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; the third on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 10,870 1,480 3,880 12% 14,460 1,760 6,370

Green (73) 17,110 2,700 7,340 12% 26,470 3,140 11,210

12% (24) 30,300 3,180 13,400

Janka side hardness for green material ranges from 1,280 lb to 2,480 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average of green and dry material ranges from 239 to 365 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is rated as fairly difficult to air-season, drying rates are slow to moderate. Warp and checking are rated as slight to moderate, depending on species. No kiln schedule data available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry typically: radial 5.8%; tangential 10.3%; volumetric 15.9%.

Working Properties: Most of the species are difficult to work because of the high density and high silica content (excepting E. tenax); specially tipped cutters are suggested.

Durability: Most species are highly resistant to attack by both brown-rot and white-rot fungi. Also most of the species have gained wide recognition for their high degree of resistance to marine-borer attack. Resistance to dry-wood termite attack is variable, depending on species.

Preservation: Highly resistant to preservation treatments.

Uses: Marine and other heavy construction, industrial flooring, pulpmill equipment, railroad crossties, piling, and turnery.

Additional Reading (24), (44), (56), (73)

Eucryphia cordifolia

Ulmo

Family: Eucryphiaceae

Other Common Names: Gnulgu, Muermo, Roble de Chile, Ulmo (Chile).

Distribution: Occurs in Chile between 37 and 44 S. latitude, extending up the mountains to the edge of glaciers.

The Tree

May reach a height of 130 ft and trunk diameters to 24 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood reddish- or grayish brown, sometimes variegated; not sharply demarcated from the lighter colored sapwood. Luster rather high; texture fine and uniform; grain generally straight; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.48; air-dry density 38 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (13) 7,000 1,130 3,770 12% 11,000 1,420 6,500

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is rather difficult to season and is prone to severe surface and end checking. Kiln schedule T3-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.5%; tangential 8.2%; volumetric 13.2%.

Working Properties: Reported to have good working properties.

Durability: Heartwood is nondurable.

Preservation: The wood responds well to preservation treatments with good lateral penetration. Sapwood and heartwood are equally treatable.

Uses: Railroad crossties (treated), flooring, general construction, furniture, and joinery.

Additional Reading (13), (59), (77)

Euxylophora paraensis

Pau Amarello

Family: Rutaceae

Other Common Names: Amarello, Limáo-rana, Pau setim, Pequia setim (Brazil).

Distribution: Confined to noninundated lands of the lower Amazon region in the State of Para, Brazil.

The Tree

A large tree of the "terra firma" reaching a height of 130 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood bright clear yellow deepening upon exposure; not sharply defined from the yellowish-white sapwood. Luster is high; texture medium; grain straight to irregular; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.70; air-dry density 54 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (40) 13,200 2,040 6,440 12% 16,200 2,180 9,050

Janka side hardness 1,610 lb for green material and 1,820 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is reported to be easy to season with little tendency to warp or check. No data on dry kiln schedules available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 6.0%; tangential 6.7%; volumetric 12.8%.

Working Properties: Reported not very difficult to work.

Durability: Reported probably of low resistance to decay.

Preservation: No data available.

Uses: Furniture, parquet flooring, and brush handles.

Additional Reading (40), (56)

Fitzroya cupressoides

Alerce

Family: Cupressaceae

Other Common Names: Lahuán (Chile).

Distribution: Occurs in the central part of Chile and in the Province of Chubut in southern Argentina. Typically on marshy ground but also at higher elevations on Isla de Chiloè and in Patagonia; forms dense, nearly pure forests.

The Tree

On favorable sites the tree reaches heights of 130 to 150 ft and diameters of 4 ft, heights of 240 ft and diameters of 15 ft are recorded. Straight cylindrical boles often clear to 80 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood brownish red and sharply demarcated from the narrow light-colored sapwood. Texture fine and uniform; straight grained; growth rings usually narrow; without distinctive odor or taste; resembles California redwood.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.38; air-dry density 30 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (23) 6,000 940 2,690 12% 8,700 1,160 5,150

Janka side hardness 430 lb for green material and 560 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is reported to season readily with little or no degrade. Kiln schedule data are not available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.8%; tangential 5.8%; volumetric 9.1%.

Working Properties: The timber works easily in all hand and machine operations; cutters must be kept sharp to get a smooth finish on end grain; easy to glue and finish. The wood is easily split to produce shakes.

Durability: Laboratory soil-block tests indicate resistance to attack by white- rot and brown-rot fungi. The wood has a local reputation for high durability.

Preservation: No data available but is reported to be probably permeable.

Uses: Shakes and shingles, general construction, pencil slats, musical instruments, vats and tanks, lumber cores, and furniture components.

Additional Reading (23), (56), (69)

Genipa americana

Jagua Genipa

Family: Rubiaceae

Other Common Names: Jagua azul (Mexico), Irayol (Guatemala), Brir (Costa Rica), Angelina (Colombia), Caruto (Venezuela), Arasaloe, Tapoeripa (Surinam), Palo Colorado, Huitoc (Peru), Genipapeiro (Brazil).

Distribution: General distribution throughout tropical America, from the West Indies and Mexico to Argentina. Widely planted for its shade and fruit.

The Tree

Reaches a height of 70 ft; mostly 15 to 18 in. in diameter, but may reach 24 in. The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light yellowish brown sometimes with a slight pinkish- or purplish-blue overcast, merging gradually into the cream-colored sapwood. Luster medium; texture rather fine; grain straight to irregular; without distinctive odor or taste. Narrow bands of darker-colored wood produce an attractive striped figure.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.57; air-dry density 44 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-cm standard; second set on 2-in. standard.)< lit> Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Psi 1,000 psi Psi

Green (14) 11,000 920 4,250 15% 14,200 7,100

12% (24) 17,300 1,710 7,450

Janka side hardness 1,410 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness 184 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons slowly but with only minor warping and virtually no surface checking. Data on dry kiln schedule not available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 4.6%; tangential 9.1%; volumetric 13.5%. Should stay in place well after manufacture.

Working Properties: Works easily and with excellent results, rates better than mahogany and teak. Glues satisfactorily and should finish without difficulty. Can be peeled to produce tight and smooth veneers.

Durability: Reported to be very susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites, pinhole borers, and decay fungi.

Preservation: Both heartwood and sapwood are reported to respond well to preservation treatments using either open-tank or pressure-vacuum systems.

Uses: Shoe lasts, tool handles, bent work, furniture and cabinet work, turnery, flooring, veneer, and plywood. Fruit is used to produce a sour refreshing drink, when immature used to prepare an indelible stain.

Additional Reading (14), (24), (45), (56)

Gossypiospermum praecox

West Indian Boxwood Maracaibo Boxwood

Family: Flacourtiaceae

Other Common Names: Agracejo (Cuba), Palo blanco (Dominican Republic), Zapatero (Colombia, Venezuela).

Distribution: Dominican Republic, Cuba, the Maracaibo Lake region of Venezuela and in eastern Colombia. Usually on dry chalky or rocky slopes.

The Tree

A small tree yielding logs 9 to 12 ft, sometimes 16 ft in length; with diameters of 6 to 12 in., occasionally up to 18 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Wood lemon yellow to nearly white with little or no difference between heartwood and sapwood. Texture very fine and uniform; luster high; grain generally straight; odor and taste not distinctive.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.65 to 0.73; air- dry density 50 to 56 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: No data available.

Drying and Shrinkage: Must be converted rapidly as blue-stain is common in stored logs. Somewhat difficult to air-dry; kiln-drying of small dimensions using a T3- A1 schedule is suggested; the wood has a tendency to check. Once dried has high dimensional stability. No data on shrinkage characteristics available.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to carve and turn, finishing very smoothly and taking a high natural polish.

Durability: The wood has poor resistance to attack by decay fungi and termites.

Preservation: No data available. Uses: Precision rules, veneers for marquetry and cabinet work, engravers' blocks, jewelers' burnishing wheels, carving and turnery, handles of cutlery, piano keys, inlay, special shuttles and spindles for the textile industry.

Additional Reading (56), (71)

Goupia glabra

Kopie Kabukalli

Family: Goupiaceae (Celastraceae)

Other Common Names: Saino, Sapino (Colombia), Kopi (Surinam), Kabukalli (Guyana), Goupie (French Guiana), Cupiúba (Brazil).

Distribution: Uplands of the lower Amazon, the Guianas, and the Serrania de San Lucas, Carare-Opon, Rio Cauca Valley, and other regions of Colombia.

The Tree

A large buttressed, semideciduous, canopy tree; grows to a height of 130 ft and with diameters to 36 in., but usually 20 to 24 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light reddish brown, darkening superficially upon exposure; distinct but not sharply demarcated from thick brownish or pinkish sapwood. Luster medium to rather high; texture medium to coarse; grain straight to interlocked; odor is fetid when fresh but dissipates upon drying though still apparent.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.72; air-dry density 54 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on 2-in. standard; third set on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 11,480 1,810 6,170 12% 15,300 2,150 8,350

12% (24) 16,600 2,370 10,850

Green (48) 14,000 1,980 7,350 15% 17,600 9,750

Janka side hardness about 1,400 lb for green material and 1,840 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 132 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Moderately difficult to air-season, dries at a moderate rate with only slight warping and checking. Kiln schedule T7-B3 is suggested for 4/4 stock. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 4.5%; tangential 8.0%; volumetric 12.6%.

Working Properties: It is rated fair to good in most operations but torn and chipped grain is common in planing because of interlocked grain. Coarser material requires a filler to obtain a smooth finish.

Durability: Laboratory evaluations indicate good resistance to attack by both brown- and white-rot fungi, but rated only slightly to moderately resistant to decay in field tests in Guyana. Resistant to dry-wood termite attack but has little resistance to marine borers.

Preservation: Heartwood is very resistant and sapwood is moderately resistant to preservation treatments using either open-tank or pressure-vacuum systems.

Uses: Heavy construction, industrial flooring, furniture components. A highly favored general purpose timber in the Guianas.

Additional Reading (24), (48), (46), (73)

Guaiacum spp.

Lignumvitae

Family: Zygophyllaceae

Other Common Names: Guayacán, Palo santo (Mexico, Central America, West Indies, Venezuela, and Colombia).

Distribution: West Indies, coastal region of tropical Mexico, west coast of Central America, and northern fringe of Colombia and adjacent areas in Venezuela. Largely confined to dry exposed sites and does well on shallow soils.

The Tree

A small tree usually 20 to 30 ft in height; often 10 to 12 in. in diameter, occasionally 18 to 30 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is dark greenish brown to almost black and sharply demarcated from the narrow pale yellow or cream-colored sapwood. Texture very fine; grain is strongly interlocked; a slight scent is evident when warmed or rubbed. it has a characteristic oily feel due to the resin content that may be as high as one-fourth of the air-dry weight.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 1.05; air-dry density 80 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (46) 11,400

Janka side hardness 4,500 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness 165 in.-lb at 9% moisture content (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and shrinkage: The wood is difficult to dry and considerable care is required to avoid shakes and end splits. Kiln schedule T2-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T2-C1 for 8/4. No data available on shrinkage characteristics.

Working Properties: Very difficult to work with hand or machine tools; a cutting angle of 15 or less is suggested in planing. The wood turns and shapes well and takes a high polish. Because of oily resins, requires special surface treatments for satisfactory gluing.

Durability: The heartwood is very resistant to attack by decay fungi, termites, and marine borers.

Preservation: No data available, but because of the high guaiac resin content and high density, treatability should be nil.

Uses: Bearings, bushing blocks, pulley sheaves, mallet heads, and turnery. Most noted use is in bearings and bushing blocks for propeller shafts of ships because of its self-lubrication and hardness.

Additional Reading (29), (46), (56)

Guarea spp.

Cramantee American Muskwood

Family: Meliaceae

Other Common Names: G. trichilioides: Guaraguao (Puerto Rico), Trompillo (Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia), Fruta de loro (Ecuador), Cedrillo (Argentina), Gitó, Cedrohy (Brazil). G. excelsa: Cedrillo, Trompillo de plaza (Mexico), Cramantee (Belize), Guano blanco (Colombia), Cabimbo (Venezuela).

Distribution: West Indies, Mexico and Central America, and southward to southern Brazil and Argentina. Frequently planted in coffee plantations for shade.

The Tree

Varies with species but sometimes 130 ft in height and 4 ft in diameter, commonly 40 to 75 ft in height and 1 to 3 ft in diameter. Some are buttressed to 15 to 20 ft, boles straight to irregular.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood pinkish to deep reddish brown; sapwood distinct but not sharply demarcated from the heartwood. Luster is rather low; texture medium; grain rather straight; green wood is aromatic but odor and taste very mild or not distinctive in dry specimens.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.46 to 0.57; air- dry density 34 to 44 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-in. standard; second on 2-cm standard; third on 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   
Green (40)             8,000              1,340                   4,070   
12%                   11,400              1,600                   6,300

Green (42) 9,550 1,220 4,600 12% 12,750 1,400 6,950

12% (41) 17,900 7,750

Janka side hardness 930 lb for green material, ranges from 800 to 1,330 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness 140 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Air-dries slowly but with only a moderate amount of warping and no checking. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 3.4%; tangential 7.0%; volumetric 11.2%. Movement after manufacture is rated as small.

Working Properties: The wood saws and machines easily and well in all operations except boring where there is a tendency to tear and crumble.

Durability: Heartwood has good resistance to dry-wood termites and is durable in the ground.

Preservation: Both heartwood and sapwood are not responsive to preservation treatments using either open-tank or pressure-vacuum systems.

Uses: Furniture, cabinet work, turnery, interior trim, joinery, ship construction (planking and trim), general carpentry, and decorative and utility veneer and plywood.

Additional Reading (40), (41), (42), (45)

Helicostylis tomentosa

Leche Perra

Family: Moraceae

Other Common Names: Feguó, Kabákrá (Costa Rica), Berbá, Choybá (Panama), Sukune (Guyana), Basri letri, Ombatapo (Surinam), Aimpem, Inarè, Muiratinga (Brazil).

Distribution: Bahia, Brazil, through the Amazon region to northeastern Peru, Colombia, and the Guianas. The Tree

Height to 100 ft, with straight cylindrical boles to 80 ft; trunk diameters 20 to 28 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood dark brown, somewhat streaked or variegated with black and yellow; sharply demarcated from the wide, golden, lustrous sapwood. Luster medium in heartwood; texture medium; grain straight to roey; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.68 to 0.76; air- dry density 52 to 58 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (24) 22,800 2,860 12,300

15% (20) 27,800 14,100

Janka side hardness about 2,700 lb for dry material. Forest Products Laboratory toughness 260 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood dries rapidly and with only slight degrade. Data on dry kiln schedules not available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 5.4%; tangential 9.2%; volumetric 14.6%.

Working Properties: The wood is rated fair to good in all machining operations but does cause excessive dulling of cutting edges; takes a high natural polish.

Durability: The heartwood is susceptible to attack by decay fungi; sapwood is prone to blue stain.

Preservation: The heartwood is difficult to treat, as is the sapwood.

Uses: Heavy construction, flooring, turnery, and furniture.

Additional Reading (20), (24), (56)

Hevea brasillensis (plantation)

Para Rubbertree

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Other Common Names: Arbol de caucho (Venezuela), Sibi-sibi (Guyana), Mapalapa (Surinam), Seringa, Seringuera (Brazil), Capi, Jève, Shiringa (Peru).

Distribution: Amazon Basin, but widely planted in Southeast Asia and West Africa for rubber production.

The Tree

In the wild may reach heights of 100 to 125 ft with large cylindrical trunks with or without buttresses. Cultivated the tree reaches a diameter of about 20 in., usually with a short bole, and with pronounced taper.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood whitish when freshly cut, becoming light brown with a pink tinge on exposure; not distinct from sapwood. Texture moderately coarse and even; grain straight; has a characteristic sour smell; luster low.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.46 to 0.52; air- dry density 35 to 40 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: No data available but is reported to be equal to or stronger than Pinus sylvestris in all mechanical properties.

Drying and Shrinkage: Air-dries rapidly; warp is severe unless stickers are closely spaced and the piles are weighted; should be dried under cover. Lumber requires chemical dipping to control blue stain and borer attack. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.3%; tangential 5.1%.

Working Properties: The timber is reported to saw without difficulty and planes easily to a smooth surface; tends to split in nailing.

Durability: The timber is perishable and stains readily. Also highly susceptible to borer and termite attack as well as powder-post beetles.

Preservation: Reported to have satisfactory treatability; absorbs 7 pcf of preservative oils using a hot and cold bath system.

Uses: Can be used in general construction provided particular care is used to control stain and insect attack, pulp and paper products, fiberboard, and particleboard, furniture components. Of course, the tree is best known for its yield of latex.

Additional Reading (12), (67)

M 150 273-18Trees in the tropics yield not only wood but a wide array of gums, oils, resins, tannins, edible fruits, medicinals, latex, fodder, and much more. The pará rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) at the end of its tapping life is used to produce an attractive wood suitable for furniture components.

Hibiscus elatus and H. tiliaceus

Blue Mahoe

Family: Malvaceae

Other Common Names: Emajagua excelsa (Puerto Rico), Majagua, Majagua azul (Cuba), Mountain-mahoe (Jamaica).

Distribution: Reported to be native to Cuba and Jamaica but widely planted and naturalized from southern Florida to Mexico, Peru, and Brazil, and throughout the West Indies.

The Tree

Commonly grows to a height of 60 to 70 ft; with trunk diameters of 12 to 18 in., on favorable sites may attain diameters of 36 in. Boles are straight and of fairly good length.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is basically a grayish brown or olive but often richly variegated with shades of purple and metallic blue; distinct from the narrow, nearly white sapwood. Texture medium, often variable; grain fairly straight; luster rather dull; no distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.62; air-dry density 47 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: No data available.

Drying and Shrinkage: No information available, but being prized as a high-grade furniture wood suggests good seasoning characteristics.

Working Properties: The timber is reported to work easily.

Durability: The heartwood is reported to be highly resistant to attack by decay fungi.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Cabinet work, furniture, inlay work, interior trim, building construction, railroad crossties. Bark of young trees is used for cordage.

Additional Reading (46), (56)

Holopyxidium jarana

Jarána

Family: Lecythidaceae

Other Common Names: Jarána, Inhauba (Brazil).

Distribution: On fertile soils in upland forests throughout the State of Para in Brazil; particularly abundant along the lower Tapajos River.

The Tree

Reported as a large tree, data on measurements not available.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Fresh heartwood is light brown to blood red in color, salmon pink to brownish red when dry; sapwood yellowish cream, 2.5 in. wide. Texture uniformly fine; grain straight; luster low; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.76 to 0.85; air- dry density 58 to 65 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard; second set on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   
Green (73)            19,690              2,390                   7,670   
12%                   30,170              2,910                  12,540

Green (48) 15,100 1,980 5,880 15% 23,600 11,000

Janka side hardness 2,280 lb for green material and 3,500 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 360 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-dries rapidly with only slight warp and surface checking; rated easy to season. No data on kiln schedules available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 6.2%; tangential 8.3%; volumetric 16.8%.

Working Properties: The wood is moderately difficult to work because of its high density but smooth surfaces are obtained in sawing, planing, and boring. No pronounced dulling of cutting edges was reported.

Durability: In laboratory tests the wood is rated very durable in resistance to brown-rot and white-rot fungi. Railroad ties are reported to last 10 to 12 years on well-drained soil in Brazil. The wood is low in resistance to marine borers.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Carpentry, railway crossties, heavy construction. Because of outstanding shock resistance should be suitable for handle stock and other applications requiring toughness.

Additional Reading (46), (73)

Humiria balsamifera

Tauroniro Umiri

Family: Humiriaceae

Other Common Names: Bastard bulletwood, Tabaniro (Guyana), Basra bolletrie, Tawanangro (Surinam), Bois rouge, Houmiri (French Guiana), Oloroso (Colombia), Couramira, Turanira (Brazil).

Distribution: The Guianas, Colombia, Venezuela, and the Brazilian Amazon. In Guyana it is a principal dominant species in the marsh forests; does best on light sandy soils. In Surinam occurs in savanna forests.

The Tree

Heights 90 to 120 ft with long cylindrical clear bole 60 to 70 ft; commonly 20 to 28 in. in diameter, occasionally up to 48 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood varies from light brown to reddish brown; poorly demarcated from the narrow light brown sapwood. Texture medium; grain straight to interlocked; luster medium; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.66; air-dry density 50 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 11,720 2,060 5,810 12% 18,770 2,510 8,950

Janka side hardness 1,320 lb for green wood and 1,610 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 146 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-dries at a rapid rate with slight surface and end checking and some warping. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 7.2%; tangential 9.7%; volumetric 15.7%.

Working Properties: The wood is moderately difficult to work, considerable chipped grain develops in planing wood with interlocked grain.

Durability: The species of Humiria have a reputation of being highly durable. Pure culture tests rate the wood very durable when exposed to white-rot fungus but durable to moderately durable in resistance to a brown-rot fungus. The wood is rated resistant to dry-wood termites, but has little resistance to marine borers.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Heavy construction, flooring, furniture, wheel spokes, suggested as a possible decorative veneer.

Additional Reading (46), (56), (75)

Hura crepitans

Hura Possumwood

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Other Common Names: Arbol del diablo, Haba (Mexico), Jabillo (Central America), Ceiba amarilla, Ceiba de Leche (Colombia), Ceiba blanca, Ceiba habillo (Venezuela), Assacú, Acacu (Brazil).

Distribution: Throughout the West Indies and from Central America to northern Brazil and Bolivia. Often occurs in nearly pure stands in Surinam on moist sandy loam. Frequently cultivated for shade.

The Tree

Commonly reaches heights of 90 to 130 ft with clear boles of 40 to 75 ft; diameters of 3 to 5 ft and at times 6 to 9 ft. Trees often have small buttresses; bark covered with conical spines.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood pale yellowish brown or pale olive gray; sapwood yellowish white often indistinct from heartwood. Texture fine to medium; luster high; grain straight to interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.33 to 0.38; air- dry density 25 to 28 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First and third sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; second set on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 6,310 1,040 2,790 12% 8,710 1,170 4,800

Green (48) 5,100 820 2,270 15% 8,000 3,860

12% (44) 7,050 895

Janka side hardness 440 lb for green material and 550 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 70 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Moderately difficult to air-dry; with variable warping, sometimes severe. Checking is slight. Dry kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and schedule T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.7%; tangential 4.5%; volumetric 7.3%. Movement in place is rated as medium.

Working Properties: The wood usually machines easily but green material is somewhat difficult to work due to tension wood, resulting in fuzzy surfaces. The wood finishes well and is easy to glue and nail.

Durability: The wood is reported to be very variable in resistance to attack by decay fungi; highly susceptible to blue stain and very susceptible to dry-wood termites.

Preservation: The wood is easy to treat, with absorption to 20 pcf using an open- tank process.

Uses: General carpentry, boxes and crates, veneer and plywood, joinery, furniture, fiberboard, and particleboard.

Additional Reading (44), (46), (46), (74)

Hyeronima alchorneoides and Hyeronima laxiflora

Suradan Pilón

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Other Common Names: Curtidor (Honduras), Nancito (Nicaragua), Pantano (Panama), Carne asada, Trompillo (Venezuela), Cargamanto, Casaco (Colombia), Suradanni (Surinam), Sangue-de-boi, Urucurana (Brazil). Distribution: Depending on the species, ranges from southern Mexico to southern Brazil including the Guianas, Peru, and Colombia, also throughout the West Indies. Varies from abundant in seasonal marshes to relic occurrences in old forests on heavy soils.

The Tree

Large straight trees with spreading rounded buttresses; reaching heights of 130 ft; with trunk diameters of 3 ft or more, but more commonly with diameters of 20 to 24 in. Stems are often clear to 70 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is a light reddish brown, to chocolate brown, to dark red; sapwood is pinkish white and 1 to 2 in. wide. Luster is low; texture moderately coarse; grain is interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste; tangential surfaces have parabolic markings due to variations in color at the margins of seasonal growth increments.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.60 to 0.67; air- dry density 46 to 53 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-in. standard; second on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 10,680 1,880 4,960 12% 18,200 2,270 9,620

Green (30) 11,500 1,520 4,900 15% 16,500 8,450

Janka side hardness 1,220 lb for green material and 1,700 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 187 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons rapidly with only a moderate amount of warp and surface checking developing. No data on kiln drying schedules available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 5.4%; tangential 11.7%; volumetric 17.0%.

Working Properties: The wood is reported to have good working properties in all operations except planing which is rated poor due to the characteristic roey grain.

Durability: The wood is rated moderately durable to very durable in ground contact based on laboratory pure culture evaluations as well as experience in railroad track. Resistant to moderately resistant to subterranean and dry-wood termites. Resistance to marine borers reported high for H. laxiflora.

Preservation: Both heartwood and sapwood are reported to treat moderately well using both open-tank and pressure-vacuum systems; test specimens had large end- grain exposure.

Uses: Heavy construction, railway crossties, marine work, furniture, cabinet work, decorative veneers, flooring, turnery, and joinery.

Additional Reading (24), (30), (46), (75)

Hymenaea courbaril

Courbaril

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Cuapinol, Guapinol (Mexico), Guapinol (Central America), Locust, Kawanari (Guyana), Rode lokus (Surinam), Algarrobo (Spanish America), Jatahy, Jatobá (Brazil).

Distribution: Southern Mexico, throughout Central America and the West Indies to northern Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru. The tree's best development is on ridges or slopes and high riverbanks.

The Tree

May grow to a height of 130 ft with trunk diameters of 5 to 6 ft; usually less than 100 ft high with diameters of 2 to 4 ft. Boles are well formed, often clear for 40 to 80 ft, and basally swollen or buttressed in large trees.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is salmon red to orange brown when fresh, becoming russet to reddish brown when seasoned; often marked with dark streaks. Sapwood is usually wide; white, gray, or pinkish. Texture is medium to rather coarse; grain mostly interlocked; golden luster; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.71 to 0.82; air- dry density 52 to 61 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard; the second on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 12,940 1,840 5,800 12% 19,400 2,160 9,510

12% (24) 25,100 2,870 14,200

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content 2,350 to 3,290 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 230 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is rated as slightly difficult to air-dry; it seasons at a fast to moderate rate with only slight checking and warp. Kiln schedule T3-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.5%; tangential 8.5%; volumetric 12.7%-values are low for a wood of this density.

Working Properties: The wood is moderately difficult to saw and machine largely because of its high density, but except in planing it can be machined to a smooth surface. The wood is somewhat difficult to plane because of the interlocked grain. It is easy to glue and finish satisfactorily; steam-bending properties comparable to white oak.

Durability: Laboratory evaluations rate the wood very resistant to brown-rot and white-rot fungi; actual field exposure trials also rate the wood as very durable. Heartwood is also rated very resistant to dry-wood termites; little resistance to marine borers.

Preservation: Heartwood is not treatable using open-tank or pressure-vacuum systems. Sapwood, however, is responsive.

Uses: Tool handles and other applications where good shock resistance is needed, steam-bent parts, flooring, turnery, furniture and cabinet work, railroad crossties, tree-nails, gear cogs, wheel rims, and other specialty items. Tree exudes a rosin-like gum known commercially as South American copal. Seed pods contain an edible pulp.

Additional Reading (24), (44), (46), (74)

Hymenolobium excelsum

Para-Angelim

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Erejoeroe, Lialiadan koleroe, Saandoe (Surinam), Angelim do Pará, Carámate, Sapupira amarella (Brazil).

Distribution: Upland forests of the central and eastern parts of the Brazilian Amazon region and extending northward into the Guianas and southward to Rio de Janeiro.

The Tree

A medium-sized to very large tree, sometimes 150 ft in height with diameters to 10 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood when fresh is light orange tan to orange brown turning to pale brown on exposure with a rather gradual transition to the white or grayish sapwood. Texture rather coarse and uneven; luster rather low; grain straight to interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste. Alternating zones of dark and light tissue give a figure of the Partridge wood type.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.6; air-dry density 46 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-in. standard standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 14,610 1,950 7,460 12% 17,610 2,050 8,990 12% (24) 13,300 2,000 9,050

Janka side hardness 1,720 lb for both dry and green material. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 203 in.-lb (5/8-in specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to be moderately difficult to air-dry season. Rate of drying fast to moderate with moderate warp and slight surface and end checking. No data on kiln schedules available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.4%; tangential 7.1%; volumetric 10.2%.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work in all operations and machines to a smooth surface.

Durability: In laboratory tests heartwood was rated very durable upon exposure to white-rot and durable in resistance to a brown-rot fungus. Exposure tests indicate the heartwood is only moderately resistant to marine borers.

Preservation: Heartwood and sapwood are both reported to respond well to pressure-vacuum treatments; test specimens, however, had high end-grain exposure.

Uses: Heavy construction, turnery, and furniture.

Additional Reading (24), (56), (73)

Iryanthera spp.

Kirikawa Marakaipo

Family: Myristicaceae

Other Common Names: Bèmoonba, Pajoelidan, Mouchigo rouge, Soewana (Guianas), Sangrito (Venezuela), Cuangare, Virola de Tumaco (Colombia), Ucuhúba-rana (Brazil).

Distribution: Upland virgin forests in the Guianas, Amazon regions of Brazil, Peru, and Colombia. Also Pacific Coastal areas of Colombia.

The Tree

Varies with species, may reach height of 130 ft and diameters to 48 in.; commonly 75 to 100 ft in height and diameters of 18 in. Boles are well formed with good merchantable lengths.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood variable, light pinkish cinnamon, dull oatmeal, or medium to dark brown, sometimes reddish or purplish. Sapwood wide, oatmeal colored, often not sharply demarcated. Luster medium to fairly high; texture medium; grain mostly straight; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.35 to 0.57; air-dry density 26 to 44 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 7,570 1,680 3,260 12% 12,650 2,180 6,970

Green (75) 9,190 1,960 4,430 12% 15,710 2,620 9,420

Janka side hardness 580 to 710 lb for green material and 850 to 1,010 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 102 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood can be air-dried with little or only moderate difficulty; slight to moderate checking and warp may develop. Data on dry kiln schedules are not available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 5.3%; tangential 9.4%; volumetric 15.6%. These shrinkage values are unusually high when compared to other tropical woods of the same density.

Working Properties: All of the species have very good machining properties and produce smooth surfaces on the normally straight-grained material. The wood is easily peeled for veneer.

Durability: The durability of all species is rated from nondurable to only moderately durable based on pure-culture decay resistance tests. The woods are also prone to blue stain.

Preservation: No information available. Uses: Millwork, turnery, furniture, boxes and crates, veneer and plywood, general construction, fiberboard, and particleboard.

Additional Reading (56), (71), (75)

Jacaranda copaia

Copaia

Family: Bignoniaceae

Other Common Names: Gualandai (Panama), Chingale (Colombia), Abey, Cupay (Venezuela), Goebaja (Surinam), Copaia, Faux simarouba (French Guiana), Carnauba da matta, Pará-pará (Brazil).

Distribution: From Belize southward to Brazil. A component of the upland forests of the Amazon region and also common in the mixed hardwood forests of Guyana. Regenerates abundantly on old clearings.

The Tree

May reach heights over 100 ft, with cylindrical, more or less straight boles clear to 50 to 60 ft; trunk diameters usually 16 to 30 in. Trunks are unbuttressed but are basally swollen.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood and sapwood not sharply demarcated, dull white to oatmeal color; prominent brown vessel lines. Luster rather high; texture medium to coarse; grain straight; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.35; air-dry density 26 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on 2-in. standard; third set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 4,580 1,160 1,980 12% 7,040 1,310 4,120

12% (44) 9,850 1,730

12% (24) 8,600 1,900 4,650

Janka side hardness 280 lb for green wood and 350 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 54 in.-lb (5/8-in specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood dries rapidly and is rated easy to season; only slight surface and end checking develops. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.5%; tangential 6.5%.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work; however, sawn surfaces of green lumber are often woolly. Even after seasoning, sawn and planed surfaces are apt to be fuzzy unless cutters are very sharp; easy to peel and slice into veneer.

Durability: The wood is perishable in ground contact, vulnerable to insect attack, and prone to blue stain.

Preservation: The wood has good treatability using either open-tank or pressure- vacuum systems.

Uses: Furniture components, interior construction, utility plywood, boxes and crates, concrete form work, match-sticks and matchboxes, fiberboard, particleboard, and pulp and paper.

Additional Reading (24), (44), (72), (76)

Juglans spp.

Nogal Tropical Walnut

Family: Juglandaceae

Other Common Names: Nogal silvestre, Nuez meca (Mexico), Nogal blanco, Tocte (Peru), Nogal criollo (Argentina).

Distribution: Varying with species, these walnuts range from southern Mexico, through Central America, and the Cordilleras of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Also found in mountain regions of Argentina.

The Tree Mostly up to 60 ft in height with diameters up to 36 in.; sometimes free from branches for 30 ft but more frequently clear to 10 or IS ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood chocolate brown and generally darker than the North American black walnut, sometimes with a purplish cast; sharply demarcated from the whitish sapwood. Texture rather coarse; luster high; grain straight to irregular; odor and taste mild but distinctive.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.50; air-dry density 38 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

15% (69) 9,100 1,020 5,180

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood dries very slowly, wet zones persist, and severe honeycombing and collapse may occur in stock thicker than 4/4. Air-drying as thoroughly as possible before kiln drying is suggested. Kiln schedule T6-D4 is proposed for 4/4 stock and T3-D3 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.8%; tangential 5.5%.

Working Properties: The wood works well, cutting cleanly with hand and machine tools and taking an excellent finish; also peels and slices readily but the veneers are also reported to dry slowly.

Durability: No data available.

Preservation: Very low permeability is reported.

Uses: Decorative veneers, furniture, cabinet work, interior finish, and other applications similar to North American black walnut.

Additional Reading (8), (38), (56), (69)

Lecythis spp.

Sapucaia Monkey Pot

Family: Lecythidaceae

Other Common Names: Coco (Panama), Coco mono, Coco cristal (Colombia), Coco de mono, Olla de mono (Venezuela), Monkey Pot (Guyana), Kwattapatoe (Surinam), Castanha sapucaia, Sapucaia vermelha (Brazil), Machin-mango (Peru).

Distribution: Widely distributed from southeastern Brazil through northern South America to Costa Rica. Common in the Amazon lowlands and coastal mountain forests of Brazil.

The Tree

Size varies with species but may reach height of 130 ft with straight cylindrical boles clear ~W 60 ft and more, diameters of 5 to 6 ft are common; usually 20 to 30 in. Stems are somewhat buttressed or shallowly fluted.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light to dark salmon; sapwood creamy yellow. Texture medium fine and uniform; luster mostly low but high in some species; grain fairly straight slightly interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varying with species from 0 to 0.93; air-dry density 46 to 69 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; third set on 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 18,340 2,890 8,880 12% 27,540 3,380 13,280

12% (44) 14,100 1,840

12% (24) 27,000 3,240 13,500

Janka side hardness for denser species 2,430 lb for green material and 3,100 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material may reach 300 to 400 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen). Drying and Shrinkage: Rated as easy to moderately difficult to air-season depending 0 species; a slow to rapid drying rate is reported. Warp and checking ranged from slight to moderate. No data on dry kiln schedules available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 6.0%; tangential 7.6%; volumetric 13.4%. These values are low for a wood of this high density.

Working Properties: The wood is moderately difficult to work because of its high dens however, surfaces obtained in planing, boring, sawing, and shaping were smooth and good to excellent. Silica content varies with species and dulling of cutters is also variable.

Durability: The wood is reported to be very durable upon exposure to both a white-rot brown-rot fungus confirming its reputation for high resistance to decay. Heartwood is also highly resistant to dry-wood termites. Reported to be moderately resistant to marine borer attack.

Preservation: The wood is highly resistant to preservation treatments.

Uses: Heavy construction, ship keels and beams, railroad crossties, industrial flooring, uses requiring high impact resistance (wagon wheels, tool handles), turnery. L. paraensis produces a highly favored edible nut.

Additional Reading (24), (44), (56), (73)

Licania spp.

Marishballi Kauta Anaura

Family: Chrysobalanaceae (= Rosaceae-Chrysobalanoideae)

Other Common Names: Bois gris (Trinidad), Monkey apple (Belize), Carbonero, Sapote (Panama), Abure, Cana dulce (Colombia), Merecure de montaña (Venezuela), Kwepie, Anaura (Surinam), Pintadinho, Caraipè (Brazil), Marishballi, Kairiballi (Guyana).

Distribution: Widely distributed in tropical America but is most abundant in the Guianas and the lower Amazon region of Brazil. Frequent in the overflow woodlands of the Amazon estuary but also in upland forests.

The Tree

Varies with species: Heights range from 65 to 110 ft, well-formed boles may be clear for 50 to 60 ft in the larger trees. Diameters commonly 16 to 24 in., often to 36 in. Some species are buttressed or stiltrooted.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is generally a yellowish brown to brown or dark brown, sometimes with a reddish tinge; sapwood tan, often rather indistinct. Texture usually fine and close; luster rather low; usually straight grained; without characteristic odor or taste. Silica content varies with species but may be as high as 3 to 4%.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.64 to 0.91; air-dry density 52 to 72 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength     
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
                      Psi              1,000 psi                   Psi   

Green (73) 17,070 2,930 7,580 12% 27,660 3,340 13,390

Green (73) 14,380 2,320 6,720 12% 20,650 2,530 11,010

Janka side hardness 2,250 lb for green material and 3,570 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 213 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The woods are rated easy to moderately difficult to air- season; drying is at a moderate to rapid rate. Warping and checking are generally rated as slight. Data on kiln schedules not available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 7.5%; tangential 11.7%; volumetric 17.2%.

Working Properties: The woods of Licania are difficult to work because of the high silica content and high density. Smooth surfaces are obtainable if tools are kept sharp. Specially hardened cutters are suggested.

Durability: Varies with species, generally considered to have low to moderately low resistance to attack by decay fungi. One species is reported to be resistant to dry-wood termite attack; all are known for their high resistance to attack by marine borers.

Preservation: Varies with species, generally heartwood is moderately responsive to both open-tank and pressure-vacuum treatments. Sapwood is reported to have good absorption and penetration.

Uses: Underwater marine construction, heavy construction above ground, railroad crossties (treated), charcoal, and fuel.

Additional Reading (24), (44), (46), (73)

Licaria spp.

Kaneelhart Brown Silverballi

Family: Lauraceae

Other Common Names: Brown silverballi, Kharemero shiruaballi (Guyana), Kaneelhart, Kaneel-pisie (Surinam), Bois canelle (French Guiana).

Distribution: Centered mostly in the Guianas; found in association with Greenheart on hilly terrain, also in Wallaba forests on sandy soils. Occurrence is only occasional.

The Tree

May reach a height of 130 ft with diameters to 44 in., normally 90 to 110 ft with diameters of 20 to 30 in. Boles are unbuttressed but basally swollen, cylindrical, and clear for 50 to 70 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood orange or brown yellow when freshly cut; darkening to yellowish brown or coffee brown on exposure and sometimes with a tinge of red or violet. Sapwood is light yellowish brown. The wood has a fragrant odor most of which is lost on drying. Texture is fine to medium; moderately lustrous; grain straight to slightly interlocked.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.68 to 0.96; air-dry density 52 to 72 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   
Green (73)            22,270                  3,820              13,390        
12%                   29,860                  4,060              17,400

Janka side hardness 2,210 lb for green material and 2,900 lb. at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 287 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Air-seasoning characteristics are variable depending upon source and species ranging from easy to season to moderately difficult. Warp is slight but checking can be severe. No data on dry kiln schedules available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 5.4%; tangential 7.9%; volumetric 12.5%. Shrinkage is unusually low for a wood of this high density.

Working Properties: High density material is difficult to work but cuts smoothly; tends to splinter in boring. Requires care in gluing; takes an excellent finish.

Durability: Excellent resistance to both brown-rot and white-rot fungi; also rated very high resistance to dry-wood termites. There is little resistance to attack by marine borers.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Furniture, turnery, boat building, heavy construction, and parquet flooring.

Additional Reading (11), (72), (73)

Lonchocarpus spp.

Black Cabbage-Bark Sindjaplè

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Machiche, Balchè (Mexico), Chaperno (Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama), Macaratú (Colombia), Guaimaro, Marajagua (Venezuela), Sindjaplè (Surinam), Haiari (Guyana), Imbira de sapo, Timbo (Brazil), Barbasco (Peru).

Distribution: Throughout tropical America; generally on open hillsides and rather dry plains at low or moderate elevations. In Surinam occasional to locally frequent in high forests and marsh forests on alluvial flats.

The Tree Heights up to 100 ft with trunk diameters ranging from 16 to 40 in.; low buttressed with clear boles to 60 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellowish brown to dark reddish brown; sharply

demarcated from the thick yellowish sapwood. Heartwood striped with rather fine uniform parenchyma laminations of lighter color. Texture moderately coarse; luster low to medium; grain straight to irregular or interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varying with species from 0.62 to 0.76; air-dry density from 46 to 58 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 1-in. standard; second and third sets based on 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (24) 25,000 3,050 12,100

Green (30) 14,500 1,920 5,400 15% 19,400 7,600

Green (42) 18,600 2,240 9,500 12% 25,400 2,440 12,900

Janka side hardness up to 2,700 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness up to 300 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Varying with species, drying rate is rather slow to rather rapid. Reported to dry satisfactorily without excessive distortion or shrinkage if dried slowly. Kiln schedule T8-B3 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T5-B1 for 8/4 (L. castilloi). Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.9%; tangential 8.2%; volumetric 13.0%. Movement is rated as medium.

Working Properties: in spite of its hardness, it is not particularly difficult to work; smooth planing, however, is difficult because of interlocked grain. Durability: Varies considerably with species. L. castilloi reported to be very resistant to fungus and insect attack; L. hedyosmus, moderately resistant; and L. sericeus, susceptible to attack.

Preservation: Generally most species are difficult to treat using either open- tank or pressure-vacuum systems.

Uses: Heavy construction, flooring, furniture components. Durable species suggested for railroad crossties.

Additional Reading (24), (30), (42), (72)

Luehea spp.

Estribeiro Guacimo

Family: Tiliaceae

Other Common Names: Tapasquit (Guatemala), Mapola (Belize), Guacimo (Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama), Algodón de monte (Colombia), Guacimo blanco (Venezuela), Acoita-cavallo (Brazil), Ibatingui, Sota caballo (Argentina).

Distribution: Varying with species from southern Mexico, through Central America, and southward to the Rio de la Plata region of Argentina.

The Tree

Size varies with species: 100 to 140 ft in height with diameters of 2 to 6 ft (L. seemannii), to 65 ft in height with diameters of 20 in. (L. divaricata). Usually with irregularly fluted trunks.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood brown or brownish, sometimes with a pinkish tinge and more or less streaked; not clearly demarcated from the sapwood. Luster varies from low to fairly high; texture fine to medium; grain straight to finely roey; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) slight variation with species from 0.47 to 0.53; air-dry density 36 to 40 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-cm standard; second on the 2-in. standard; third on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (30) 10,600 1,210 4,540 15% 13,700 6,450

Green (25) 8,500 1,520 4,200 12% 12,900 1,930 6,180

12% (41) 11,800 6,350

Janka side hardness about 900 lb at 12% moisture content. Amsler toughness 280 in.-lb at 15% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Generally the various species air dry rapidly with little or no degrade. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 3.4%; tangential 7.8%; volumetric 11.0%.

Working Properties: Generally reported to be easy to work, however one species is reported difficult to plane and another difficult to turn.

Durability: All species are reported to be vulnerable to attack by decay fungi and insects.

Preservation: Generally reported to be easy to treat with good penetration and absorption of preservative solutions.

Uses: Millwork, furniture components, flooring, general construction, boxes and crates, veneer and plywood, particleboard, and shoe heels.

Additional Reading (25), (30), (41), (65)

Lysiloma spp.

Sabicú T'Zalam

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Abey, Frijolillo, Jige, Sabicú (Cuba), Tabernau, Tavernon (Haiti), T'zalam (Mexico). Distribution: Chiefly a Mexican genus with extensions into Central America, southernmost parts of the United States, and the Greater Antilles.

The Tree

A spreading tree with a rather short trunk, 2 to 3 ft in diameter; sometimes free of branches for 25 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood lustrous brown with a coppery or purplish tinge, sometimes faintly striped; sharply demarcated from the thin white sapwood. Texture medium; grain straight to roey; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.63; air-dry density 48 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (19) 9,500 1,230 12% 12,800 1,900

Janka side hardness 1,320 lb for green material and 1,400 lb at 12% moisture content. Amsler toughness 292 in.-lb for green material and 345 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to air-season slowly. Kiln schedule T3-C2 was used to dry 6/4 and 4/4 stock; the boards were prone to surface and end checking. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.7%; tangential 7.2%; volumetric 9.5%.

Working Properties: Considered easy to work, finishes smoothly, and takes a high natural polish.

Durability: Heartwood is rated as highly durable.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: General construction, furniture, wheelwright work, parquet, interior trim, bobbins and shuttles, veneer, and knife handles.

Additional Reading (19), (56

Machaerium spp.

Caviuna Pau Ferro

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Capote, Siete cueros (Colombia), Cascarón (Venezuela), Chiche

(Ecuador), Tuseque, Morado (Bolivia), Jacarandá, Jacaranda pardo (Brazil).

Distribution: The species of this group are widely distributed throughout tropical America but are most abundant in Brazil, with commercial sources in the southeast.

The Tree

Medium-sized, rarely large trees.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood brown to dark violet brown, often streaked, rather waxy; sapwood whitish, grayish, or yellowish. Luster medium to high; texture fine to coarse; grain straight to irregular; without distinctive taste but sometimes walnut scented. Wood dust may cause dermatitis.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.65 to 0.75; air- dry density 49 to 57 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (30) 14,200 1,580 5,670 15% 17,000 8,000

Green (30) 14,000 1,240 5,550 15% 17,500 8,300

Janka side hardness for green material 1,450 to 1,780 lb. Amsler toughness 282 to 346 in.-lb at 15% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: No information on drying characteristics available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.6%; tangential 6.6%; volumetric 10.0%. These values are exceptionally low for a wood of this high density.

Working Properties: Reported to be fair to excellent.

Durability: Heartwood highly resistant to attack by decay fungi.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Fine furniture, decorative veneers, turnery, specialty items, and cabinet work. Generally useful for the same purposes as Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra).

Additional Reading (30), (47), (56)

Magnolia spp.

Magnolia Vaco

Family: Magnoliaceae

Other Common Names: Laurel sabino (Puerto Rico), Corpus, Elosúchil, Semiramis (Mexico), candelillo (Costa Rica), Vaco (Panama).

Distribution: Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies; mostly in the highlands.

The Tree

Tree heights are 70 to 100 ft with diameters occasionally up to 5 ft or more, commonly 3 ft. Boles are straight with clear lengths of 40 ft and more; sometimes buttressed.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood olive green when freshly cut becoming light yellowish brown to greenish brown sometimes with a purplish tinge upon exposure; purple, dark brown, or nearly black streaks are common. Sapwood wide, white to greenish when first cut, darkening somewhat on exposure. Texture fine and uniform; luster low to moderate; grain straight to interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varying with species from 0.45 to 0.59; air-dry density 34 to 44 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 8,560 1,690 3,590 12% 14,250 1,970 7,850

12% (62) 11,500 1,450

Janka side hardness `860 lb for green material and 1,090 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 118 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: All species are easy to air-season; the wood dries rapidly with no or slight warp and checking. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.6%; tangential 7.0%; volumetric 11.2%.

Working Properties: The wood saws and machines easily, however in planing there may be considerable tearing where grain is irregular. M. sororum is reported to be fair to good in steam-bending quality.

Durability: Heartwood is rated durable to highly durable with respect to deterioration by both white-rot and brown-rot fungi but vulnerable to dry-wood termite attack.

Preservation: Heartwood is resistant to moisture absorption and is probably difficult to treat.

Uses: Utility veneer and plywood, millwork, furniture and cabinet work, general interior and exterior construction, boat planking, and turnery.

Additional Reading (45), (62), (74)

Manilkara bidentata

Bulletwood Balata

Family: Sapotaceae

Other Common Names: Chicozapote (Mexico), Ausubo (Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic), Nispero (Panama), Beefwood (Guyana), Bolletri (Surinam), Balata rouge (French Guiana), Macaranduba (Brazil).

Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the West Indies, Central America, and northern South America; occurs in many forest types and not exacting as to soil or topography. Locally frequent.

The Tree

Well-formed tree reaching heights of 100 to 150 ft and diameters of 2 to 4 ft, occasionally up to 6 ft or more. Boles straight and clear to 60 ft, often basally swollen.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light to dark reddish brown, distinct but not sharply demarcated from the whitish or pale brown sapwood. Texture fine and uniform; luster low to medium; grain straight to occasionally slightly wavy or interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.85; air-dry density 66 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First and third sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; second on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 17,310 2,700 8,690 12% 27,280 3,450 11,640

12% (24) 29,200 3,520 13,300

12% (20) 32,600 15,200

Janka side hardness 2,230 lb for green material and 3,190 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 265 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Balata or bulletwood is generally reported to be a difficult wood to air-season, tending to develop severe checking and warp. However, if piled to assure a slow rate of drying, degrade can be kept to a minimum. A kiln schedule similar to T1-B1 has been suggested. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 6.3%; tangential 9.4%; volumetric 16.9%.

Working Properties: The wood is moderately easy to work despite its high density, rated good to excellent in all operations. Gluing requires special care to acquire a good bond. Steam-bending properties are rated excellent.

Durability: Very resistant to attack by decay fungi; highly resistant to subterranean termites and moderately resistant to dry-wood termites. Not resistant to marine borer attack.

Preservation: Has high resistance to absorption of moisture and is also highly resistant to preservation treatments.

Uses: Heavy construction, textile and pulpmill equipment, furniture parts, turnery, tool handles, flooring, boat frames and other bent work, railway crossties, violin bows, billiard cues, and other specialty uses. Also well known for its yield of balata or gutta-percha collected from tapped trees.

Additional Reading: (20), (24), (46), (74)

Maytenus spp.

Carne D'Anta

Family: Celastraceae

Other Common Names: Aguabola, Limncillo (Mexico), Arizá, Camarón (Colombia), Cucharo (Venezuela), Carne d'anta, Apiranga, Chuchasca, Pau de colher (Brazil), Maitèn, Naranjillo (Argentina).

Distribution: Well distributed throughout tropical America, occurs scattered in the coastal forests of the Bahia region of Brazil; also well known in the Patagonian forests of Rio Negro, Argentina.

The Tree

Attains a height of 75 to 100 ft with a cylindrical bole 2 to 5 ft in diameter; with little taper and without buttresses.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light reddish brown; sapwood whitish. Texture very fine and uniform; luster low to medium; grain interlocked to irregular; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varying with species from 0.64 to 0.77; air-dry density 49 to 59 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (1-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (24) 18,200 2,410 11,100

Janka side hardness 2,240 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness 120 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to air-dry slowly with a tendency toward severe warping. No data on dry kiln schedules available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 4.6%; tangential 8.9%.

Working Properties: Reported to have satisfactory working qualities, particularly suited for turnery.

Durability: Susceptible to attack by decay fungi.

Preservation: Heartwood is reported to have excellent absorption and penetration of preservatives when treated using either an open-tank or pressure-vacuum system.

Uses: General carpentry and construction, turnery, furniture, and cabinet work.

Additional Reading (24), (5-

Micropholis spp. Grumixava Riemhout

Family: Sapotaceae

Other Common Names: Caimitillo (Puerto Rico), Chupón colorado, Hácano (Venezuela), Moraballi (Guyana), Riemhout, Koesiri balatarie (Surinam), Faux balata (French Guiana), Grumixava, Apixuna (Brazil), Barilla de agua (Peru), Ibirá-camby (Argentina).

Distribution: West Indies and tropical America but mainly in the Guianas and Amazonia. In Surinam found in high, marsh, and savanna forests.

The Tree May reach heights of 100 to 120 ft or more with diameters of 36 to 40 in. above the moderately high buttresses; lengths of clear boles may reach 40 to 70 ft.

The Wood General Characteristics: Heartwood yellow-to gray brown with a somewhat pinkish tinge and sometimes with a yellowish-green hue; not clearly differentiated from the lighter colored sapwood. Texture fine to medium, grain mostly straight; luster medium; without distinctive odor or taste. Silica content of 0.2 to 0.5% is reported.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varying with species from 0.54 to 0.68; air-dry density 41 to 51 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; third set on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 13,630 2,470 6,610 12% 18,890 2,950 9,820

15% (34) 19,620 2,410 9,800

Green (30) 11,000 1,500 4,850 15% 14,500 7,100

Janka side hardness 1,130 lb for green material and 1,490 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 128 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air dries at a rapid rate with moderate warping and slight to moderate checking. No data available on dry kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 5.8%; tangential 8.5%; volumetric 14.3%.

Working Properties: Some species moderately difficult to saw and machine with rather rapid dulling of cutters due to silica. However, straight-grained stock yields smooth surfaces in most operations.

Durability: The heartwood is rated as moderately durable in resistance to white- rot fungi and very durable in resisting brown-rot fungi. Actual field experience rates this wood as moderately resistant to decay. The wood is susceptible to dry- wood termites. Resistance to marine borers is variable.

Preservation: The sapwood is reported to have moderate treatability.

Uses: Furniture components, general construction, decorative veneer, turnery, flooring, millwork, interior trim. Some resemblance to hard maple and yellow birch.

Additional Reading (30), (34), (4,5), (7,5)

Mora excelsa and Mora gonggrijpii

Mora

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Nato, Nato rojo (Colombia), Mora de Guayana (Venezuela), Morabukea, Mora (Guyana), Mora, Moraboekea (Surinam), Pracuúba (Brazil).

Distribution: M. excelsa: Widely distributed in the Guianas and less so in the Orinoco Delta of Venezuela; dominant on river levees and flood plains forming dense stands. M. gonggrijpii Restricted to Guyana and Surinam, a dominant species best adapted to hillsides on heavy clay soils.

The Tree

Usually 100 to 120 ft high and 2 to 3 ft in diameter with clear boles 60 ft and more above very large buttresses that may extend 15 ft up the trunk. Trees of M. excelsa 160 to 200 ft high and 4 ft in diameter are reported.

The Wood

General characteristics: Heartwood yellowish red brown, reddish brown or dark red with paler streaks; sapwood 2 to 6 in. wide, distinct, yellowish to pale brown. Texture moderately fine to rather coarse, rather harsh to the feel; luster medium to high; grain is straight to commonly interlocked, very variable; astringent taste and a slightly sour odor.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.76 to 0.84; air- dry density 59 to 65 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard, the second on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 12,630 2,330 6,400 12% 22,100 2,960 11,840

Green (42) 13,600 2,150 7,150 12% 24,400 2,790 12,700

Janka side hardness 1,450 lb for green material and 2,300 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 228 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Drying reports are variable, generally rated moderately difficult to season; a slow rate of drying and careful stacking are suggested to keep warp and other degrade to a minimum. Boxed heart pieces tend to split. Kiln schedule T2-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T2-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage from green to ovendry radial 6.9%; tangential 9.8%; volumetric 18.8%.

Working Properties: The wood is moderately difficult to work but yields smooth surfaces in sawing, planing, turning, or boring unless interlocked grain is present, then there may be considerable "pick up" and chipped grain.

Durability: Results are variable; material from Surinam and Guyana is rated durable to very durable in resistance to brown-rot and white-rot fungi. Service life of 15 to 20 years in ground contact is reported. M. gonggrijpii is rated very resistant to dry-wood termites; M. excelsa considerably less so, not resistant to marine borers.

Preservation: Sapwood responds readily to preservative treatments; heartwood resists impregnation, penetration is very shallow, and absorptions are low.

Uses: Industrial flooring, railroad crossties, shipbuilding, heavy construction, high quality charcoal wood.

Additional Reading (34), (42), (46), (75)

Myroxylon balsamum

Balsamo

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Bálsamo, Palo de bálsamo (Spanish America generally), Cedro chino, Nabal (Mexico), Chirraca, Sándalo (Costa Rica), Tache, Tolú (Colombia), Estoraque (Peru), Cabriúva vermelha (Brazil), Incienso, Quina (Argentina).

Distribution: Has a wide range from southern Mexico southward through Central America and continuing to Argentina.

The Tree

Up to 100 ft in height, usually 50 to 65 ft and 18 to 36 in. in diameter.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood reddish brown becoming deep red or somewhat purplish upon exposure; fairly uniform to striped; sharply demarcated from the white sapwood. Luster medium to high; texture medium; grain is typically interlocked; without distinctive taste, but may have a pleasant spicy scent.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.74 to 0.81; air- dry density 54 to 62 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-cm standard; the second and third on the 2-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   
Green (30)            16,900              1,820                   8,600     
15%                   19,200                                     10,300

12% (20) 25,400 13,400

Green (40) 17,270 2,130 8,200 12% 20,130 2,430 11,100

Janka side hardness 2,070 lb for green material and 2,200 lb at 12% moisture content. Amsler toughness 360 in.-lb at 15% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: No information available on seasoning characteristics. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 3.8%; tangential 6.2%; volumetric 10.0%. These values are very low for a wood of this high density.

Working Properties: It is reported to be moderately difficult to work but can be finished smoothly with a high natural polish. Though nonsiliceous, there is more than the usual dulling of cutters.

Durability: The heartwood is reported to be highly resistant to attack by decay fungi.

Preservation: Both sapwood and heartwood are highly resistant to preservative treatments.

Uses: Flooring, furniture, interior trim, turnery, railroad crossties. The tree is well known for its yield of balsam used in perfumes, harvested mainly in El Salvador.

Additional Reading (20), (30), (40), (56)

Nectandra spp.

Canelo Laurel

Family: Lauraceae

Other Common Names: Aguacatillo (Mexico, Honduras, Costa Rica), Laurel (Colombia, Venezuela), Silverballi (Guyana), Pisi (Surinam), Canela (Brazil), Ayui-y, Laurel (Argentina). A large number of species make up this group.

Distribution: Widely distributed throughout tropical America. The Tree

Varies with species, may reach a height of 100 ft; commonly up to 28 in. in diameter, occasionally to 40 in. Boles are straight and cylindrical, sometimes buttressed.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood brownish yellow with a green cast, or olive to light olive brown and in some species becoming blackish brown; transition to whitish or brownish sapwood often gradual. Texture mostly medium to rather coarse; luster usually satiny or silky; grain straight to roey; odor spicy, taste mild to pronounced.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varying with species, mostly 0.43 to 0.61; air-dry density 32 to 46 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard; second and third sets based on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 10,440 1,540 5,020 12% 14,230 1,650 7,260

Green (30) 12,800 1,900 5,330 15% 17,100 8,500

Green (30) 10,900 1,370 4,870 15% 12,400 6,620

Janka side hardness 930 lb for green material and 1,060 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 123 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-dries at a fast to moderate rate with little or no degrade due to warping or checking. No information available on dry kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.4%; tangential 6.0%; volumetric 9.8%.

Working Properties: The wood has excellent working properties with either machine or hand tools, dresses to a smooth finish. Glues and paints well.

Durability: May vary with species, generally rated durable in resistance to attack by decay fungi but rather susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites.

Preservation: Heartwood is extremely resistant to moisture absorption, comparable to teak and is thus difficult to impregnate.

Uses: Furniture and cabinet work, ship decking and boat planking, flooring, millwork, veneers and plywood, and general carpentry.

Additional Reading (30), (71), (72), (74)

Nothofagus spp.

Rauli (N. procera) Coigue (N. dombeyi)

Family: Fagaceae

Other Common Names: Anis, Coihue, Coyan, Hualo, Raulí, Roble Ruilí (Chile), Coihuè, Lengue, Nirè, Robe (Argentina).

Distribution: Coigue: From 38 S. latitude northward along the Chilean coast and up the river valleys into the high cordilleras in northern Llanquihue on poor soils. Rauli: From the Province of Valparaiso to the Province of Valdivia, mostly on good soils.

The Tree

May reach heights of 130 ft with trunk diameters usually 2 to 3 ft, occasionally 6 to 8 ft. Boles often clear to 60 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood varies from pale pinkish brown to reddish brown to bright cherry red; sapwood often wide, light brown. Texture mostly fine and uniform. Rauli has a tendency to ring porosity; without distinctive odor or taste; grain is straight; luster low to medium.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) ranges from 0.45 to 0.53; air-dry density 34 to 40 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (23) 7,500 1,220 3,550 12% 11,500 1,490 6,650

Green (16) 10,700 1,380 4,000 12% 17,400 1,830 8,800

Green (23) 8,100 1,170 3,980 12% 11,200 1,420 6,480

Janka side hardness 840 lb for green material, 990 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: Generally very difficult to dry with a pronounced tendency to distort and collapse. Kiln schedule T2-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T2-C1 for 8/4 (Coigue). Dries rather slowly but well with little degrade (Rauli). Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Movement probably small (Rauli). Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.5%; tangential 7.0% (Rauli).

Working Properties: Both species are easy to work and dress cleanly; fair to good steam-bending qualities; easy to glue and finish.

Durability: Heartwood durability variable. Soil-block tests of Coigue indicate low resistance to attack by decay fungi, but some references give a provisional durable to moderately durable rating.

Preservation: Sapwood is reported to be permeable and heartwood rated as moderately resistant. Pressure-vacuum treatment of Coigue gave preservative salt penetrations of about 3 to 24 mm.

Uses: Furniture components, cabinet work, flooring, millwork, cooperage, an all- purpose timber in Chile. Rauli is the preferred species.

Additional Reading (16), ("2), (42), (56)

Ochroma pyramidale syn. O. lagopus

Balsa Family: Bombacaceae

Other Common Names: Balsa (Central and South America in general), Corcho (Mexico), Gatillo (Nicaragua), Enea, Pung (Costa Rica), Lana (Panama), Pau de balsa (Brazil), Palo de balsa (Peru), Tami (Bolivia).

Distribution: Widely distributed in tropical America; throughout the West Indies, and from southern Mexico, through Central America and into Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Usually found at lower elevations especially on bottom-land soils along streams; also in clearings and cutover forests. Cultivated in plantations.

The Tree

Native trees are 60 to 90 ft high and 2.5 to 4 ft in diameter. On the best sites may reach a height of 80 ft and a diameter of 2.5 ft in 5 years. Slight buttresses develop in the larger trees.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood pale brown or reddish; sapwood (comprising most of the commercial timber) nearly white or oatmeal colored often with a yellowish or pinkish hue. Texture medium to coarse; grain generally straight; luster mostly rather high; velvety feel; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies greatly, commercial balsa usually between 0.10 to 0.17. Air-dry density about 8 to 14 pcf, averaging in the trade 10 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-cm standard; second and third sets on the 2-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (22) 3,300 460 2,250

12% (76) 2,120 425 1,300

12% (70) 2,800 550 1,700

Janka side hardness 75 to 100 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: Kiln-drying of converted stock preferable to air-drying to minimize splitting and warping. Kiln schedule T10-D4S is suggested for 4/4 stock and T8-D3S for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry for 17 pcf air-dry material grown in Puerto Rico: radial 3.0%; tangential 7.6%; volumetric 10.8%. Movement is reported to be small.

Working Properties: The wood is very easy to work with sharp, thin-edged power or hand tools. Dull or thick-edged cutters tend to give a woolly finish in planing. The wood is too soft to hold nails and screws but glues satisfactorily.

Durability: The wood is perishable; vulnerable to dry-wood termite attack; logs and green lumber are readily attacked by pinhole borers. Prone to blue stain if not converted rapidly.

Preservation: Heartwood is resistant to preservative treatments; sapwood is permeable.

Uses: Insulation for heat, vibration, and sound; rafts, lifebelts, floats, core stock in sandwich constructions, surgical splints, toys, and model airplanes.

Additional Reading (22), (46), (70), (76)

Ocotea rodiaei

Demerara Greenheart Greenheart

Family: Lauraceae

Other Common Names: Bibiru, Sipiri, Kevatuk (Guyana), Beeberoe, Demerara groenhart, Sipiroe (Surinam).

Distribution: Commercial quantities mostly in the north central portion of Guyana but also found in Surinam and in the Venezuelan Guiana. It has also been reported from the Maroni Region of western French Guiana and from northern Brazil.

The Tree

Grows to a height of 130 ft with diameters up to 40 in., commonly 16 to 24 in. in diameter with heights of 100 ft. Boles are cylindrical, straight, and clear for 50 to 75 ft with only moderate taper; usually basally swollen or with low buttresses.

The Wood General Characteristics: Heartwood varies from light to dark olive green or blackish, often with intermingling of lighter and darker areas; not sharply defined from the pale yellow or greenish sapwood. Texture fine and uniform; grain straight to roey; lustrous; odorless and tasteless when dry.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.80 to 0.91; air- dry density 62 to 70 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-cm standard; second on the 2-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (42) 20,300 2,310 9,770 12% 26,200 3,040 13,040

Green (40) 20,900 3,040 10,690 12% 25,500 3,700 13,040

Janka side hardness 1,880 lb for green material and 2,360 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood dries very slowly with a marked tendency to check and end split; however, warping is not serious and the total amount of degrade is not excessive. Lumber over 1 in. in thickness should be air-seasoned prior to kiln-drying. Kiln schedule T2-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T2-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 8.8%; tangential 9.6%; volumetric 17.1%. Movement in service is rated medium.

Working Properties: Moderately difficult to work with hand or machine tools because of its density, dulls cutting edges rather quickly but finishes to a fine smooth lustrous surface. Turns easily and takes a high polish. A moderately good steam-bending wood. Gluing gives variable results.

Durability: The heartwood is rated highly resistant to attack by decay fungi and is also rated as highly resistant to attacks by marine borers but this may vary from one locality to another, particularly in brackish waters. Highly resistant to attack by dry-wood termites.

Preservation: Impermeable to preservative treatments.

Uses: Marine and ship construction, lock gates, docks, industrial flooring, vats, filter press plates, piling, heavy construction, turnery, specialty items (fishing rods, billiard cue butts).

Additional Reading (22), (40), (42), (46)

M 150 272-14Some European markets still prefer hand hewn greenheart (Ocotea rodiaei) for heavy marine construction. Work is being done on a river landing in Guyana.

Ocotea rubra

Determa Red Louro

Family: Lauraceae

Other Common Names: Determa (Guyana), Wana, Wane (Surinam), Grignon rouge (French Guiana), Louro vermelho (Brazil).

Distribution: The Guianas, Trinidad, and the lower Amazon region of Brazil. Occasional to frequent on sandy or loamy soils in Guyana.

The Tree

Trees reach heights of 130 ft with diameters to 5 ft; usually 90 to 100 ft high with diameters of 2 to 3 ft; boles are generally basally swollen and clear 40 to 80 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light reddish brown with a golden sheen; well- defined sapwood, narrow, dull gray or pale yellowish brown. Texture rather coarse; grain is interlocked to straight; quartersawed lumber is sometimes attractively figured; dry wood is without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.52 to 0.59; air- dry density 40 to 45 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard; second set is based on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 7,820 1,460 3,760 12% 10,470 1,820 5,800

Green (30) 10,300 1,450 5,150 15% 13,600 7,150

Janka side hardness 520 lb for green material and 660 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 75 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen). Amsler toughness 137 in.-lb at 15% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is moderately difficult to air-season; drying at a moderate rate with slight checking and moderate warp. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4; there is a tendency to warp and check in the kiln. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.7%; tangential 7.6%; volumetric 10.4%.

Working Properties: Works readily with hand and machine tools with little dulling effect; reported to glue readily and polishes fairly well.

Durability: Heartwood is rated durable to very durable in resistance to attack by white-rot and durable to a brown rot; moderately resistant to dry-wood termites; is similar to teak in resistance to marine borers. Weathering characteristics are excellent and the wood is highly resistant to moisture absorption.

Preservation: The heartwood is not treatable.

Uses: Furniture, general construction, boat planking, tanks and cooperage, joinery, heavy marine construction, turnery, parquet flooring, veneer and plywood is also suggested.

Additional Reading (10), (30), (46), (74)

Ormosia spp.

Baracara Kokriki

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Palo de matos (Puerto Rico), Amargo blanco (Panama), Chocho (Colombia), Peonio (Venezuela), Mekoe (Surinam), Tento, Jatobáhy do igapó (Brazil).

Distribution: Most of the species are Amazonian but with extensions southward to So Paulo and northward to the West Indies, Central America, and southern Mexico.

The Tree

Varying with species, tree heights may reach 100 ft with diameters of 16 to 28 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood pinkish to reddish, mostly salmon colored, sometimes yellowish brown, more or less streaked; not always distinct from the yellowish sapwood. Texture coarse to very coarse; luster usually medium; grain mostly irregular; feels harsh; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varying with species from 0.50 to 0.68; air-dry density 37 to 52 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; third set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 13,510 2,060 6,520 12% 17,860 2,340 9,780

15% (34) 13,800 1,720 6,830

12% (24) 14,200 2,230 8,050

Janka side hardness 1,000 lb to 1,570 lb for dry material. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 151 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Generally the wood air-dries very slowly. Checking and warp vary from slight to moderate. No information available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 3.6%; tangential 7.4%; volumetric 12.0%.

Working Properties: For most species, reported to saw and machine easily with fair to good results; surfaces, however, are somewhat rough and difficult to finish.

Durability: Generally reported to be quite susceptible to attack by decay fungi; vulnerable to dry-wood termites; and prone to powder-post beetle attack (sapwood).

Preservation: The heartwood and sapwood respond moderately well to pressure- vacuum preservative treatments; incising should be used where end-grain exposure is low.

Uses: Furniture components, interior construction, general carpentry, and utility veneer.

Additional Reading (24), (34), (71), (7,5)

Oxandra lanceolata

West Indian Lancewood

Family: Annonaceae

Other Common Names: Haya prieta (Puerto Rico), Yaya (Panama, Cuba, Dominican Republic), Bois de lance (Haiti).

Distribution: Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. Other species mostly in the Amazon basin.

The Tree

Slender forest trees up to 50 ft in height; but marketed as Lancewood spars about 13 ft long and rarely over 5 in. in diameter at the small end; all sapwood.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Commercially desirable sapwood is pale yellow. Texture fine; straight grained; luster medium; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.81; air-dry density 62 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (44) 23,700 2,900

Janka side hardness 2,830 lb at 12% moisture content (values are for Oxandra sp. grown in Panama and with a basic specific gravity of 0.75).

Drying and Shrinkage: Oxandra sp. of Panama is rated moderately difficult to air- dry with slight checking. No dry kiln schedule information available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 6.2%; tangential 9.6%; volumetric 15.4%.

Working Properties: The wood is moderately difficult to work because of its high density but finishes smoothly. Excellent turnery.

Durability: The woods are nondurable.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Fishing rods, billiard cues, archery bows, articles of turnery, textile machinery, and small tool handles.

Additional Reading (22), (44), (56)

Paratecoma peroba

White Peroba Peroba De Campos

Family: Bignoniaceae

Other Common Names: lpˆ peroba, Peroba, Peroba branca, Peroba manchada (Brazil).

Distribution: Coastal forests of eastern Brazil ranging from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro.

The Tree

The tree attains a height of about 130 ft and diameters to 60 in.; boles are symmetrical and clear to 90 ft. The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light olive, with a yellowish, greenish, or reddish hue, sometimes indistinctly striped; sharply demarcated from the white or yellowish sapwood. Texture is fine; fairly lustrous; grain commonly interlocked with a narrow stripe or roey figure; without distinctive odor or taste. Fine dust produced in machining causes skin irritations in some workers.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.60; air-dry density 46 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (30) 14,100 1,490 6,500 15% 16,900 7,800

12% (42) 16,200 1,650 9,260

Janka side hardness 1,600 lb at 12% moisture content. Amsler toughness 327 in.-lb at 15% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to dry readily with negligible splitting. Warp not generally serious though it may become severe in thin stock with irregular grain. Kiln schedule T3-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.8%; tangential 6.6%; volumetric 10.5%.

Working Properties: The wood is reported to machine easily but care is needed in planing quartered surfaces. Easy to glue and finish. As noted, may cause dermatitis in some workers.

Durability: The heartwood is rated very durable in resistance to attack by decay fungi.

Preservation: Resistant to preservative treatments.

Uses: Fine furniture, interior joinery, decking and flooring, vats and tanks for foodstuffs, decorative veneers.

Additional Reading (22), (30), (42), (56)

Parinari spp.

Burada Foengoe

Family: Chrysobalanaceae

Other Common Names: Perefuetano (Colombia), Tostado (Venezuela), Aiomoradan, Burada (Guyana), Foengoe, Vonkhout (Surinam), Parinari, Pajurá (Brazil), Uchpa- umari (Peru).

Distribution: The Guianas and the lower Amazon region of Brazil, but also in other areas of northern South America.

The Tree

May attain a height of 130 ft and a diameter of 48 in., usually up to 75 ft in height with diameters to 30 in. Boles may be up to 60 to 80 ft in length; commonly buttressed for a height of about 15 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood gray brown, yellow brown, or yellowish pink brown; when freshly cut often a deep orange brown. Sapwood somewhat lighter colored and not clearly defined. Grain generally straight, sometimes interlocked; scattered pores coarse, otherwise texture is fine; luster mostly low; without distinctive odor or taste. Silica content up to about 2.0% is reported.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varying with species 0.64 to 0.72; air-dry density 50 to 55 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; third set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 12,750 2,120 5,800 12% 20,120 2,610 10,260

Green (73) 14,760 2,660 6,780 12% 21,740 2,930 11,960

12% (24) 19,600 2,480 9,850

Janka side hardness 1,270 lb for green wood and 1,830 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 157 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-dries rapidly with only slight checking; warp is moderate. Kiln schedule T2-C2 for 4/4 stock is suggested, but only after prior air-drying. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 5.9%; tangential 10.0%; volumetric 14.6%.

Working Properties: Because of high silica content and high density the woods are difficult to machine; cutters are dulled rapidly. However, smooth surfaces are obtained in all operations with proper maintenance of tools.

Durability: Laboratory pure culture evaluations generally show moderate durability in resistance to white-rot and brown-rot fungi. Field exposure tests, however, indicate high susceptibility to decay. Resistant to attack by marine borers.

Preservation: Reported to be treatable using a pressure-vacuum system, with good penetration and absorption of preservatives.

Uses: Marine construction; especially when continuously submerged to avoid decay fungi, ship keels, railroad crossties (treated).

Additional Reading (24), (72), (73)

Peltogyne spp.

Purpleheart Amaranth

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Palo morado (Mexico), Morado (Panama, Venezuela), Tananeo (Columbia), Koroboreli (Guyana), Purperhart (Surinam), Amarante (French Guiana), Pau roxo, Guarabú (Brazil), Violetwood (English trade).

Distribution: Center of distribution in the north-middle part of the Brazilian Amazon region; combined range of all species from Mexico through Central America and southward to southern Brazil.

The Tree

Trees grow to heights of 170 ft with diameters to 4 ft, but usually 1.5 to 3 ft; boles are straight, cylindrical, and clear 60 to 90 ft above buttresses up to 12 ft high.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood brown when freshly cut becoming deep purple upon exposure, eventually turning to a dark brown sharply demarcated from the off-white sapwood. Texture medium to fine; luster medium to high, variable; grain usually straight, sometimes wavy, roey, or irregular; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.67 to 0.91; air-dry density 50 to 66 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard; second on the 2-cm standard; third on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 13,690 2,000 7,020 12% 19,220 2,270 10,320

Green (30) 21,000 2,560 9,250 15% 26,700 12,200

12% (24) 30,900 3,460 14,500

Janka side hardness ranges from 1,860 lb to 3,920 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness at 12% moisture content ranges from 157 to 398 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reports vary, from air-dries easily to moderately difficult; dries slowly to fairly rapidly; with almost no degrade to some warping and splitting. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.2%; tangential 6.1%; volumetric 9.9%. Stability after manufacture or movement is rated as small.

Working Properties: Moderately difficult to work with either hand or machine tools, dulls cutters, exudes a gummy resin when heated by dull tools; slow feed rates and specially hardened cutters are suggested. Turns smoothly, easy to glue, and takes finishes well.

Durability: Heartwood is rated as highly durable in resistance to attack by decay fungi; very resistant to dry-wood termites; but little resistance to marine borers.

Preservation: Heartwood is reported to be extremely resistant to impregnation with preservative oils; sapwood is permeable.

Uses: Turnery, marquetry, cabinets, fine furniture, parquet flooring, tool handles, heavy construction, shipbuilding, many specialty items (billiard cue butts, chemical vats, carving).

Additional Reading (24), (30), (46), (7,5)

Persea spp.

Lingue Canela-Rosa

Family: Lauraceae

Other Common Names: Pèche marron (Haiti), Aquacote cimarrón (Mexico), Aquacatillo (Honduras, Costa Rica), Aquacate chico (Panama), Aquacate de anís (Colombia), Palto-jeia (Peru), Lingue (Chile), Canela-rosa, Canela ruiva (Brazil).

Distribution: Throughout tropical America from the West Indies and southern Mexico southward to Chile. P. americana (Avocado) widely planted for its fruit. P. lingue (Lingue) from Coquimbo to Valparaiso and Santiago in Chile.

The Tree

Generally up to 60 to 65 ft in height with trunk diameters to 40 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood brown, reddish, or pinkish; the darkest sharply demarcated from the gray or cream-colored sapwood. Texture medium to coarse; luster medium to high; grain straight to irregular; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varying with species from 0.39 to 0.54; air-dry density 30 to 41 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-cm standard; third on the 2-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (30) 9,750 1,360 4,600 15% 12,300 6,400

12% (42) 13,050 1,465 7,020

12% (44) 10,550 1,790

Janka side hardness about 670 lb for green material and 860 lb at 12% moisture content. Amsler toughness 214 in.-lb at 15% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to be easy to moderately difficult to air-dry with little or no degrade or tendency to warp and collapse. No data on kiln schedules available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 4.8%; tangential 9.5%; volumetric 13.5%.

Working Properties: All species are reported to be easy to work and finish smoothly; some fuzzy grain in one wood from Panama. P. lingue reported to be suitable for steam bending.

Durability: Generally reported to have low durability. P. americana reported to be slightly resistant to dry-wood termite attack.

Preservation: Generally reported to have low permeability and rated moderately difficult to preserve.

Uses: Joinery, furniture, interior construction, millwork, boxes and crates, utility veneers and plywood, flooring and parquetry. Bark of P. lingue used for tanning. P. americana as indicated, produces the avocado.

Additional Reading (30), (42), (44), (56)

Phoebe porosa

Imbuia Brazilian-Walnut

Family: Lauraceae Other Common Names: Canella imbuia, Embuia, Embuya (Brazil).

Distribution: Grows mostly in the moist Araucaria forests of Paraná and Santa Catharina in southern Brazil, mostly at altitudes of 2,500 to 4,000 ft; forming rather rich stands.

The Tree

The tree attains a maximum height of 130 ft and a trunk diameter of about 6 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellowish or olive to chocolate brown, either plain or beautifully variegated and figured; sapwood is gray and usually distinct. Texture rather fine; grain is straight to curly and wavy; luster medium to rather high; spicy resinous scent and taste but losing most of it in drying. Dust arising in working may cause dermatitis.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.53; air-dry density 40 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-cm standard; second set on the 2-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (30) 11,100 1,120 4,620 15% 13,250 6,400

Green (40) 7,700 1,080 3,380 12% 12,100 1,410 6,650

Janka side hardness 880 lb for green material and 950 lb at 12% moisture content. Amsler toughness 182 in.-lb at 15% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is reported to be easy to air-dry, however thick stock is slow to dry and may develop honeycomb and collapse. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.7%; tangential 6.0%; volumetric 9.0%.

Working Properties: Saws and machines satisfactorily and finishes smoothly. Fine dust generated in working may cause dermatitis.

Durability: Heartwood is reported to be resistant to attack by decay fungi.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Fine furniture and cabinet work, paneling, flooring, gunstocks, decorative veneer, and joinery.

Additional Reading (26), (30), (40), (56)

Phyllostylon brasiliensis

San Domingo-Boxwood

Family: Ulmaceae

Other Common Names: Jatia (Cuba), Baitoa (Dominican Republic), Bois blanc (Haiti), Cerón (Mexico), Sabonero (Colombia), Cara tibama (Venezuela), Pau branco (Brazil), Palo de lanza blanco (Paraguay), Palo amarillo (Argentina).

Distribution: Cuba, Hispaniola, and Mexico southward to Colombia, Venezuela, southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina; often in pure stands.

The Tree

Sometimes 80 ft in height with trunk diameters of 30 in.; boles are irregular or fluted.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood lemon yellow, sometimes with a tinge of brown, occasionally with dark streaks; sapwood yellowish or nearly white. Texture fine and uniform; grain fairly straight but sometimes irregular; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.77; air-dry density 59 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: No information available.

Drying and Shrinkage: A kiln schedule similar to T2-B2 has been suggested. Other than that, no information available.

Working Properties: Reported to be not difficult to work; readily turned and carved; takes a high polish. Durability: No information available.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Suggested as a substitute for boxwood (Buxus, Gossypiospermum).

Additional Reading (56)

Pinus caribaea

Caribbean Pine

Family: Pinaceae

Other Common Names: Pino (generally in Latin America), Ocote (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua).

Distribution: Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Bahama Islands, and Cuba; widely introduced as a plantation species throughout the world (Australia, South Africa, Surinam, and elsewhere).

The Tree

Grows to a height of 100 ft and with trunk diameters of 30 to 40 in., occasionally larger. Boles are clear up to 70 ft and with moderate taper.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood generally golden brown to red brown and distinct from the lighter sapwood. Texture somewhat coarse; grain is typically straight; luster medium; strong resinous odor; growth zones generally clearly defined but often lacking in juvenile wood. Compression wood often present, at least in plantation-grown wood.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies considerably and may range from 0.34 to 0.68; air-dry density 26 to 51 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; third set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 11,190 1,880 4,900 12% 16,690 2,240 8,540

Green (1) 9,000 1,610 4,600 12% 14,700 1,950 7,830

12% (9) 8,830 920

Janka side hardness 980 lb for green material and 1,240 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 251 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The timber air-seasons rather slowly with a tendency for end splitting in thick stock. Low density plantation wood reported to dry rapidly with no checking and only slight warp. Kiln schedule T1 0-D4S is suggested for 4/4 stock and T8-D3S for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 6.3%; tangential 7.8%; volumetric 12.9%.

Working Properties: The timber is easy to work with either hand or machine tools; however, high resin contents may cause some downtime due to gumming of cutters and machine tables. Takes nails and screws well and glues satisfactorily.

Durability: Durability and resistance to insect attack varies with resin content, heartwood generally rated moderately durable. Sapwood prone to blue stain.

Preservation: Sapwood is highly permeable and is easily treated by open-tank or pressure-vacuum systems. Heartwood is rated as moderately resistant and depends on the resin content.

Uses: General light and heavy construction, carpentry, flooring, joinery, utility poles and railroad crossties (treated), boat building, vats, utility plywood, pulp and paper products.

Additional Reading (1), (9), (46), (75)

M 150 272-15 In the highlands of El Salvador, ocote pine (Pinus ococarpa) is cut into boards by pit sawing. Finished lumber is sent down the mountainside on the backs of unattended burros.

Pinus oocarpa

Ocote Pine

Family: Pinaceae

Other Common Names: Pino (generally in Latin America), Ocote (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua).

Distribution: Upper mountain slopes and mountain ridge tops from northwestern Mexico southward to central Nicaragua; most extensively in Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

The Tree

Tree size varies considerably over its range; heights up to 120 ft; diameters 16 to 32 in., occasionally 50 in. Boles are cylindrical, straight, and clear to 50 ft and more.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light reddish brown; distinct from the pale yellowish-brown sapwood. Luster medium; grain straight; texture is somewhat fine and uniform; odor resinous, taste not distinctive; growth rings distinct.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.55; air-dry density 41 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 7,970 1,740 3,690 12% 14,870 2,250 7,680

Janka side hardness 580 lb for green material and 910 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 120 in.-lb (5/8-in specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons at a fast to moderate rate with a minimum of seasoning defects. Kiln schedule T1 0-D4S is suggested for 4/4 stock and T8-D3S for 8/4. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 4.6%; tangential 7.5%; volumetric 12.3%.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work with hand and machine tools and is comparable with the southern yellow pines.

Durability: The heartwood is classified as very durable in resistance to attack by a white-rot fungus and moderately durable when exposed to a brown rot. The wood does not weather well without the protection of paint or other coatings.

Preservation: Sapwood is permeable; heartwood resistant.

Uses: General purpose construction timber (light and heavy), flooring, box and crate lumber, poles and crossties (treated), and other uses similar to that of the southern yellow pines.

Additional Reading (73)

M 150 272-15In the highlands of El Salvador, ocote pine (Pinus oocarpa) is cut into boards by pit sawing. Finished lumber is sent down the mountainside on the backs of unattended burros.

Pinus patula (plantation)

Patula Pine

Family: Pinaceae

Other Common Names: Pino (generally in Latin America), Ocote (Mexico).

Distribution: Restricted to eastern Mexico from Tamaulipas to Oaxaca; a favored plantation species in Angola, Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa, and elsewhere in Africa. Planted as well in New Zealand, Australia, India, Brazil, and Argentina.

The Tree

Heights to 115 ft with trunk diameter of 18 to 60 in. are reported. Boles straight and cylindrical.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood in plantation-grown material is not easily distinguishable from sapwood; one of the whitest of pines; growth rings distinct; comparatively nonresinous with little odor. Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.40 to 0.50; air- dry density 30 to 38 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on 2-cm standard (?);third on the 2-in. standard. Sources: Angola, Madagascar, Tanzania.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (81) 14,200 5,900

12% (81) 14,000 1,210 5,500

12% (81) 12,000 1,860 7,300

Drying and Shrinkage: Reports are variable; material from 30-to 40-year-old trees seasoned well with little degrade; dries rapidly. Air-drying from green (150 to 200% moisture content) to 20% required 2 to 3 weeks for 4/4 stock. Reported to kiln-dry rapidly without severe degrade. Kiln schedule similar to T1 3-C4S has been suggested for 4/4 stock. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.1%; tangential 7.9%; volumetric 12.6%.

Working Properties: Saws easily and dresses with only a slight tearing of grain around knots; does not bore, mortise, or turn smoothly. Takes and holds nails well and makes an excellent glue joint.

Durability: The wood is not resistant to fungus, insect, or termite attack; prone to blue stain.

Preservation: Reported to be easy to treat by open-tank and pressure-vacuum systems.

Uses: Particleboard, excelsior-cement panels, pulp and paper products, food containers, paneling; if juvenile cores are excluded, can be used for light construction, shingles (treated).

Additional Reading (81)

Piptadenia pittieri and P. spp.

Carbonero

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Hediondo, Bocachico, Rabo de iguana (Colombia), Carbonero, Carabali (Venezuela), Huilca, Tarahuilca (Peru).

Distribution: Abundantly represented in tropical South America; timber described in this group mostly from Venezuela and Colombia.

The Tree

A medium-sized tree to about 65 ft in height with trunk diameters to 2 ft; boles straight and clear to 30 to 50 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood brown, yellow brown, or reddish brown; sapwood light brown to whitish, not always clearly demarcated. Texture fine to medium; grain straight to irregular; luster high; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.57 to 0.67; air- dry density 44 to 49 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 1-in. standard; the third set on the 2-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (24) 15,400 1,960 8,250

12% (41) 17,000 8,600

12% (21) 19,700 2,480 9,220

Janka side hardness 1,550 to 1,680 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: Dries rather slowly and prone to severe checking, unless air-dried carefully. No kiln schedule information available. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.6 to 4.4%; tangential 6.4 to 7.5%; volumetric 9.0 to 11.6%.

Working Properties: Rated as fair to good in all machining operations. However, will tend to tear when planing irregular grain. Durability: Generally reported to be vulnerable to attack by decay fungi and insects.

Preservation: Heartwood treatability varies with species; absorptions are fair to good using a pressure-vacuum system; sapwood is responsive.

Uses: Heavy construction, posts, railroad crossties (treated), furniture, flooring, turnery.

Additional Reading (21), (24), (41), (6,5)

Piratinera guianensis syn. Brosimum guianensis

Letterwood Snakewood

Family: Moraceae

Other Common Names: Cacique carey (Panama), Palo de oro (Venezuela), Burokoro, Tibicusi (Guyana), Letterhout (Surinam), Bois d'amourette (French Guiana), Gateado, Muirapenima (Brazil).

Distribution: Guianas, Trinidad, and the Amazon region; a rare to occasional tree.

The Tree

Unbuttressed small tree, up to 80 ft in height with trunk diameters of 12 to 20 in.; bole is cylindrical and clear for 40 to 50 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood dark red to reddish brown with irregular radial black markings or with black vertical stripes alone or in conjunction with the speckles; sapwood very thick, yellowish white, line of demarcation often irregular and not very sharp. Luster medium to high; texture fine and uniform; grain straight; odorless and tasteless.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (green volume/ovendry weight) 0.82 to 1.10; air- dry density 63 to 84 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: No strength values available but reported to be a strong hardwood that splits rather easily, heartwood is rather brittle.

Drying and Shrinkage: Should be dried carefully and in small pieces; shrinkage is reported to be rather high.

Working Properties: Works with difficulty because of hardness; turns well and takes a beautiful polish.

Durability: Heartwood very resistant to attack by decay fungi and dry-wood termites.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Inlay, turnery, fancy handles for cutlery, violin bows, walking sticks, drum sticks, butts of fishing rods.

Additional Reading (46), (56), (72)

Pithecellobium saman

Saman Raintree

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Dormilón (Puerto Rico), Algarrobo (Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala), Cenícero (El Salvador, Costa Rica), Samaguare (Colombia), Lara, Carabalí (Venezuela), Huacamayo-chico (Peru), Monkeypod (Hawaii).

Distribution: Native to southern Mexico (Yucatan Peninsula) and Guatemala southward to Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. The tree is widely planted and naturalized throughout the West Indies, Mexico southward, and in other tropical regions of the world; makes its best growth on well-drained fertile soils.

The Tree

Attains heights of 100 to 125 ft and trunk diameters of 3 to 4 ft; when grown in the open, develops a massive wide-spreading crown and a short thick trunk.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood dark walnut to dark chocolate brown which turns a light to golden brown with darker streaks when seasoned; sapwood is thin and yellowish and clearly differentiated from the heartwood. Texture medium to coarse; luster medium; either straight or cross grained; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.48; air-dry density 35 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (46) 8,100 910 3,760 12% 8,860 1,100 5,070

Janka side hardness 750 lb for green material and 850 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 99 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to air-season rather poorly with little or no checking but moderate to severe warp. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.0%; tangential 3.4%; volumetric 6.0%; exceptionally low for a wood of this density.

Working Properties: The wood saws and machines easily but may develop torn and fuzzy grain when working pieces with interlocked grain; takes an excellent finish.

Durability: The wood is rated durable to very durable in resistance to attack by a white-rot and brown-rot fungus and rated resistant to attack by dry-wood termites.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Fine furniture and cabinet work, millwork, decorative veneer, joinery. The tree is highly favored for its shade and nutritious pods eaten by cattle, hogs, and goats.

Additional Reading (45), (46), (73)

Platymiscium spp.

Trebol Macawood

Family: Leguminosae Other Common Names: Granadillo (Mexico, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras), Coyote, Cristobal (Costa Rica), Trebol, Guayacan trebol (Colombia), Roble (Venezuela), Koenatepi (Surinam), Macacauba, Jacaranda do brejo (Brazil), Cumaseba (Peru).

Distribution: Continental tropical America from southern Mexico to the Brazilian Amazon region, and Trinidad.

The Tree

Heights to 80 ft with trunk diameters of 28 to 42 in.; boles are straight, cylindrical, and clear to 60 ft; buttressed.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood bright red to reddish or purplish brown, more or less distinctly striped; darker specimens look waxy; sharply demarcated from the nearly white sapwood. Luster medium to high; grain straight to roey; texture mostly medium to fine, sometimes coarse; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.73 to 0.94; air-dry density 55 to 73 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard, the second set on the 2-cm standard, and the third set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 22,320 3,020 10,540 12% 27,600 3,200 16,100

Green (30) 15,900 2,130 7,460 15% 17,500 8,940

12% (24) 16,800 2,500 9,800

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content ranges from 1,710 lb. to 3,200 lb. Amsler toughness at 12% moisture content is 242 in.-lb (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Generally reported to air-dry slowly with a slight tendency to warp and check. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.7%; tangential 3.5%; volumetric 6.5% (P. pinnatum); values are remarkably low for a wood of this density.

Working Properties: Not very difficult to work, finishes smoothly, and takes a high polish.

Durability: Heartwood reported to be highly resistant to attack by decay fungi and insects; resistance to dry-wood termites is rated very high.

Preservation: Heartwood is highly resistant to preservation treatments; sapwood responds with good absorption, but irregular penetration.

Uses: Fine furniture and cabinet work, decorative veneers, musical instruments, turnery, joinery, specialty items (violin bows, billiard cues).

Additional Reading (24), (30), (72), (75)

Podocarpus spp.

Podocarp Mañio

Names: Ciprès (Guatemala, Honduras), Cipricillo, Cipresillo lorito (Costa Rica), Pino chaquiro (Colombia), Pino castañeto (Venezuela), Pinho bravo (Brazil); Mañio, (Chile).

Distribution: Various species in mountainous areas from the West Indies and southern Mexico to southern Chile.

The Tree

Varies considerably with species, ranging from heights of 60 ft and diameters 10 to 16 in. to heights of 100 ft and diameters up to 40 in. Clear straight boles often somewhat fluted but without buttresses.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood pale yellow to yellowish brown; not distinct from sapwood. Texture fine and uniform without conspicuous zones of latewood; somewhat lustrous; grain usually straight but may be slightly interlocked; odor or taste absent or not distinctive in seasoned wood.

Weight: specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.37 to 0.55; air-dry density 28 to 42 pcf.

Mechanical properties: (First and third sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; the second on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (1) 8,700 1,250 4,320 12% 11,800 1,380 6,980

Green (30) 6,500 780 2,970 15% 8,550 4,600

12% (62) 15,600 2,080

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content 760 lb. Amsler toughness at 15% moisture content is 70 in.-lb. (2-cm specimen) for Brazilian material.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons rapidly with little or no warping or checking. Kiln schedule T10-D4S is suggested for 4/4 stock and T8-D3S for 8/4 (P. guatemalensis). Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.6%; tangential 6.4%; volumetric 9.6%. Movement in service is rated small.

Working Properties: The timber works easily with hand and power tools; nails easily and takes stain, varnish, and paint satisfactorily.

Durability: Heartwood from trees grown in Belize reported to be moderately durable in ground contact under tropical exposure. Durability of other species from other areas reported as low.

Preservation: Reported to have good penetration and absorption if treated by a pressure-vacuum system.

Uses: Joinery, millwork, furniture components, boxes and crates, general construction, veneer and plywood, pulp and paper, patternmaking.

Additional Reading (1), (30), (46), (62)

Poulsenia armata

Mastate

Family: Moraceae Other Common Names: Ababábite, Carnero (Mexico), Tumu (Honduras, Nicaragua), Cocuá, Mastate (Panama), Corbón, Cucúa, (Colombia), Majagua (Ecuador).

Distribution: From Vera Cruz, Mexico, through Central America and southward to Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia.

The Tree

Sometimes up to 100 ft tall with trunk diameters to 37 in. above the buttress.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood absent or not clearly distinguishable from the yellowish-white sapwood which becomes brownish or oatmeal on exposure. Luster rather high; texture coarse; grain straight to interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste. A silica content of 7.32% is reported.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.33; air-dry density 25 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (64) 6,960 965

Janka side hardness 360 lb.

Drying and Shrinkage: Drying rate is reported to be moderate, dries without degrade due to warping or checking. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.8%; tangential 6.9%.

Working Properties: Saws woolly when green; wood difficult to plane smoothly if grain is interlocked. Dulls tools rapidly because of the very high silica content.

Durability: Reported to be perishable in contact with the ground.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: General construction work (interior). inner bark has long been used to make blankets, mats, and clothing.

Additional Reading (56), (64)

Pradosia spp.

Chupón

Family: Sapotaceae

Other Common Names: Chupón, Chupón torito, Toco (Venezuela), Abihy, Burahem, Paracuhuba doce (Brazil).

Distribution: Amazon basin and extending into the Guianas, Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador.

The Tree

Attains a height of 100 ft and diameters of about 40 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellowish-or grayish-brown with more or less reddish cast; sapwood narrow, yellowish or grayish, not always distinct from the heartwood. Texture fine to medium, uniform; grain usually straight, sometimes interlocked; luster low; without characteristic odor but taste sometimes bitter or astringent.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.68; air-dry density 52 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 11,420 1,740 4,360 12% 17,770 2,320 7,660

Janka side hardness 1,440 lb for green material and 1,880 lb for dry. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 230 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Drying is rapid but may result in severe checking and moderate warp; a reduced drying rate may minimize degrade. No information on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.4%; tangential 10.5%; volumetric 14.8%.

Working Properties: Works easily and finishes to a smooth surface. Good steam- bending properties.

Durability: Heartwood is rated durable in test exposures to white-rot and brown- rot organisms, but is not suggested for uses where high durability is required.

Preservation: No information available, but is reported to be resistant to moisture absorption.

Uses: General construction, heavy-duty flooring, also suggested for tight cooperage, tool handles.

Additional Reading (56), (73)

Prioria copaifera

Cativo

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Amansamujer, Copachú (Colombia), Camibar (Costa Rica), Muramo, Curucai (Venezuela).

Distribution: Lowland areas from Nicaragua to Colombia, often in nearly pure stands.

The Tree

Heights are usually 75 to 100 ft with clear boles of 40 to 50 ft; commonly range from 18 to 40 in. in diameter with occasional specimens reaching 48 to 60 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood medium to light brown, often attractively streaked; sharply demarcated from the thick sapwood which is pinkish to white when fresh becoming dingy on the surface because of oily exudations. Texture rather fine and uniform; straight grained; superficially dull but with golden luster beneath; without distinctive odor or taste. Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.40; air-dry density 30 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 5,920 940 2,460 12% 8,560 1,110 4,290

12% (44) 8,900 1,180

Janka side hardness 440 lb for green material and 630 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 88 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Wood dries rapidly with no checking and only slight warping. Collapse is reported to occur sometimes in the darker streaks in the heartwood, particularly during kiln-drying. Kiln schedule T3-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-C1 for 8/4. Control of gum exudates by use of high kiln temperatures is reported. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.4%; tangential 5.3%; volumetric 8.9%.

Working Properties: Tends to be woolly when sawed green; wood machines well in all operations when dry, mostly with smooth surfaces, sometimes with a slight tendency to fuzziness. Easy to glue. Requires care in finishing because of gum content. Fair to good in steam-bending quality.

Durability: Generally rated as nondurable, particularly in resistance to white rot.

Preservation: The wood is reported to be easy to preserve.

Uses: Interior trim, furniture and cabinet work, joinery, veneer and plywood, millwork; used to prepare resin-stabilized veneer for pattern stock.

Additional Reading (37), (44), (56), (73)

Protium spp.

Kurokai Copal

Family: Burseraceae

Other Common Names: Latilla, Pom (Mexico), Alcanfor, Fontole (Honduras), Caraño, Chutra (Panama), Anime, Caraño (Colombia), Bálsamo, Tacamahaco (Venezuela), Kurokai (Guyana), Bois encens (French Guiana), Breu branco, Breu preto, Sucuriúba (Brazil).

Distribution: Throughout tropical America but most abundantly represented in the Amazon basin; frequent in the marsh forests of Guyana.

The Tree

Usually up to 90 ft in height; diameters mostly 16 to 20 in., sometimes up to 40 in. Some species with low, flat buttresses and fluted boles.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood brown or reddish brown, sometimes with irregularly spaced darker brown lines; not always sharply demarcated from the pale buff to pinkish sapwood. Texture varies from rather fine to fairly coarse; luster rather high; grain straight to very irregular and interlocked; dry specimens without distinctive odor or taste. Silica reported for some species.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.45 to 0.61; air-dry density 33 to 45 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-cm standard, the second set on the 2-in. standard, and the third set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (42) 11,000 1,465 5,280 12% 16,850 1,765 9,200

Green (40) 9,300 1,510 4,370 12% 11,800 1,650 6,960

12% (24) 15,700 1,860 8,700

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content ranged from 720 lb to 1,280 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness at 12% moisture content is 167 in.-lb (5/8- in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reports vary from fairly easy to air-dry to moderately difficult. Kiln schedule T3-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.2%; tangential 6.8%; volumetric 10.7%.

Working Properties: Logs should be debarked prior to sawing to avoid resin accumulation on cutters and equipment. Dry wood works easily and rates fair to good in all operations. Cuts easily into veneers but tends to buckle on drying. Some species abrasive because of silica content.

Durability: Generally reported to have low resistance to attack by decay fungi and vulnerable to dry-wood termites. No appreciable resistance to marine borers.

Preservation: Generally heartwood is reported as difficult to treat with pressure-vacuum systems; sapwood is responsive.

Uses: Furniture, millwork, veneer and plywood, general construction, particleboard, a possible substitute for birch. incense-like resin obtained from wounds to the bark and marketed as "elemi."

Additional Reading (24), (40), (42), (46)

Pseudosamanea guachapele

Guachapele Frijolillo

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Cadeno (Guatemala), Frijolillo (Honduras), Tabaca, Guamarillo (Colombia), Samanigua (Venezuela), Guachapele (Ecuador).

Distribution: From Guatemala southward to Venezuela and Ecuador. Generally grows in dry areas and seeds naturally in pastures and abandoned fields. Often used for shade in coffee plantations.

The Tree

A large tree with a spreading crown, well-formed bole without significant buttresses.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light orange brown when freshly cut becoming yellow brown or brown with a golden luster on drying; rather sharply demarcated from the thin whitish sapwood. Texture medium to rather coarse; grain generally interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.56; air-dry density 41 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 8,190 1,200 3,930 12% 10,750 1,150 6,570

Janka side hardness 1,030 lb when green and 1,040 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and air-dry material is 130 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to be somewhat difficult to air season. A moderate rate of drying resulted in some warping and slight checking. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.9%; tangential 4.5%; volumetric 7.6%; values are unusually low for a wood of this density.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work and surfaces finish smoothly after sanding; sawn surfaces are somewhat woolly.

Durability: Heartwood is rated durable to very durable upon exposure to both white-rot and brown-rot fungi. Reported to have excellent weathering characteristics.

Preservation: Heartwood is highly resistant to moisture absorption and thus presumed to be nontreatable.

Uses: Shipbuilding (planking, ribs, decking), railroad crossties, general construction, flooring, decorative veneers, furniture components.

Additional Reading (56), (73)

Pterocarpus spp. Sangre

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Sangre de drago (generally in Latin America), Palo de polio (Puerto Rico), Sangrillo (Costa Rica), Huevos de gato (Panama), Yaya sangre (Colombia), Lagunero (Venezuela), Bèbè (Surinam), Angú, Mututi, Pau sangua (Brazil), Nogal falso (Bolivia).

Distribution: Throughout tropical America from the West Indies and southern Mexico to northern Argentina. Some species in swamplands, others in uplands, and still others common on abandoned farmlands and on cutover forest lands.

The Tree

Varies with species up to 90 ft in height with diameters to 36 in., commonly to 16 in. In some, bole is usually fluted with high sinuous, irregular plank buttresses.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Wood yellowish or whitish; sapwood indistinct; traumatic heartwood dark brown or purplish. Texture medium to coarse; luster medium; grain straight to irregular; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies considerably with species from 0.28 to 0.60; air-dry density 22 to 44 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; the third set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 9,580 1,580 4,140 12% 16,020 2,000 7,390

12% (64) 7,100 1,090

12% (24) 10,450 1,430 5,420

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content varies with species from 275 lb to 1,380 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 220 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Most species are relatively easy to air-season with only slight checking and moderate warp, particularly in thinner boards. No data on kiln schedules are available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 3.9%; tangential 6.8%; volumetric 10.8%.

Working Properties: Easy to work and finishes smoothly in all operations. P. vernalis reported to cut well into veneers for plywood. The same species has excellent steam-bending characteristics.

Durability: Generally reported to be very susceptible to attack by decay fungi. in laboratory evaluations the decay resistance of P. vernalis is reported to be very variable.

Preservation: Reported to be very easy to treat using either open-tank or pressure-vacuum systems.

Uses: Rough construction lumber, particleboard and fiberboard, general carpentry, plywood, and furniture components.

Additional Reading (24), (64), (74)

Pterogyne nitens

Amendoim Viraro

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Amendoim, Ibiráro, Pau fava (Brazil), Guiáro, Ibiraró, Viraró, (Argentina).

Distribution: Argentina, southern Paraguay, and Brazil; scattered occurrence.

The Tree

Attains a maximum height of over 100 ft but more commonly not over 75 ft with a well-formed trunk, diameter 2 to 3 ft, exceptionally 4 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood reddish brown suggesting mahogany often with darker striping; not sharply demarcated from the yellowish-brown sapwood. Luster medium to high; texture medium; grain often roey; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.66; air-dry density 50 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (30) 11,900 1,610 5,650 15% 16,900 7,660

Janka side hardness for green material 1,340 lb. Amsler toughness 354 in.-lb. at 15% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: No data available on drying characteristics or on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.4%; tangential 6.0%; volumetric 10.0%. Reported to hold its place well after manufacture.

Working Properties: Rather easily worked and finishing very smoothly.

Durability: Reported to be fairly durable.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: Fine furniture and cabinet work, turnery, interior trim, cooperage, and steam-bent work.

Additional Reading (30), (56), (69)

Qualea spp.

Mandioqueira Gronfoeloe

Family: Vochysiaceae

Other Common Names: Florecillo (Venezuela), Kouali, Grignon fou (French Guiana), Gronfoeloe (Surinam), Mandio, Mandioqueira, Quaruba (Brazil).

Distribution: The genus is represented throughout tropical America from southern Mexico to Peru, but most abundantly in the Guianas and Brazil.

The Tree

Trees to heights of 100 ft, sometimes attaining 200 ft; with diameters to 25 in., reaching 40 in. occasionally. Clear stems extend to 60 or 70 ft. Light to heavily buttressed.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood pinkish brown to reddish brown, occasionally olive brown; sometimes sharply demarcated from the grayish or yellowish sapwood. Luster golden in some species, medium in others; texture medium to decidedly coarse; grain straight to interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.49 to 0.60; air-dry density 37 to 46 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First and third sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; second set on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 10,510 2,030 5,200 12% 14,610 2,200 7,570

Green (42) 11,700 1,850 6,250 12% 20,000 2,560 11,800

12% (44) 18,000 2,580

Janka side hardness for air-dry material ranges from 900 to 1,730 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 156 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is reported to be moderately difficult to air- season and kiln-dry. It seasons rapidly but with some warping and slight checking. Care in stacking and mild drying conditions are suggested. Kiln schedule T3-D2 may be used for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.4%; tangential 8.4%; volumetric 11.4%.

Working Properties: The wood is generally rated as moderately difficult to work particularly when roey grain is present; saws and other cutting edges dull rather quickly because of silica accumulations, 0.10% is reported. Glues satisfactorily.

Durability: Heartwood somewhat variable in decay resistance, generally is rated as moderately durable and is not suitable for continuously damp conditions. Also prone to staining during drying. Weathering characteristics are rated as only fair and severe surface checking develops when unpainted wood is exposed. Q. albiflora is rated as moderately resistant to dry-wood termites.

Preservation: The wood is rated as moderately difficult to rather easy to preserve, varying with species.

Uses: Joinery, millwork, furniture, veneer and plywood, general construction, and flooring.

Additional Reading (42), (44), (75)

Quercus spp.

Roble Encino Oak

Family: Fagaceae

Other Common Names: Ahuatl, Cucharillo, Encino (Mexico), Roblecito (Guatemala), Encino negro (Honduras), Roble encino, Roble colorado (Costa Rica), Mamecillo (Panama), Robe, Roble amarillo (Colombia).

Distribution: In tropical America from Mexico southward through Central America to Colombia. In the lower latitudes confined mostly to the high mountains.

The Tree

A large tree that may reach a height of 90 ft and a diameter of 5 ft; more commonly with a height to 65 ft and diameters up to 30 in. Stems are straight and cylindrical.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellowish brown to reddish brown; sapwood whitish to light brown. Grain is generally straight; texture coarse; luster usually low; without distinctive odor or taste when seasoned. Because of the broad rays, the wood is highly figured as in the temperate oaks but pores in radial or diagonal rows rather than ring-porous.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.57 to 0.82; air-dry density 44 to 62 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; the third set on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (44) 22,400 2,960

12% (61) 16,400 2,840

12% (71) 29,000

Janka side hardness for dry material ranges from 1,600 lb. to 3,200 lb.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is very difficult to air-season, prone to severe checking, warping, and collapse; rate of drying is slow. To minimize drying problems, lumber should be quarter-sawn. Kiln schedule T2-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T2-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry (including collapse): radial 6:4%; tangential 11.7%; volumetric 18.5%.

Working Properties: Generally reported to be difficult to work, particularly the high density species. Tangential surfaces can be finished smoothly but there is a tendency to "tear-out" on radial surfaces.

Durability: Heartwood is reported to have a high natural durability; sapwood is prone to insect and fungal attack.

Preservation: The wood is rated as difficult to treat.

Uses: Flooring, railroad crossties, construction, mine timbers, tight cooperage, boat and ship construction, decorative veneer, and charcoal.

Additional Reading (44), (61), (71)

Rheedia spp. Pacuri Remelento

Family: Guttiferae

Other Common Names: Palo de cruz (Puerto Rico), Limoncillo (Mexico), Caimito (Honduras), Madroño (Colombia, Venezuela), Pakoeli (Surinam), Remelento, Bacury, Pacuru (Brazil), Charichuèla (Peru).

Distribution: Widely distributed in tropical America from the West Indies and Mexico in the north to Argentina.

The Tree

Medium to large-sized trees up to 100 ft high with stem diameters to 36 in. and more. Cylindrical boles clear to 65 ft above the few low thick buttresses.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood dark yellow brown, grayish-or pinkish-brown merging gradually into the sapwood; surfaces sometimes specked with resinous exudations. Luster medium to rather low; grain straight to irregular and roey; texture medium to coarse; odorless and tasteless.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.72; air-dry density 55 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-cm standard; second set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (33) 13,000 1,800 5,850 15% 18,800 8,650

12% (41) 18,400 9,050

Janka side hardness for green material 1,250 lb. Amsler toughness at 15% moisture content 425 in.-lb (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Dries rapidly but is reported to be moderately difficult to air-season; tending to warp and check. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry is very high: radial 4.0%; tangential 14.2%; volumetric 16.6%. Movement also reported as rather high.

Working Properties: Reports on workability vary with species from moderate to high resistance to cutting to machining fairly well; reports on ease of finishing also variable.

Durability: Species in Surinam rated durable to attack by decay fungi and fairly resistant to dry-wood termites. Species in Colombia are resistant to a brown-rot fungus but not the white-rot in a laboratory assay. Under field conditions the wood was susceptible to decay and attack by insects.

Preservation: Reported to have adequate absorption using either pressure or open- tank systems; however penetration is irregular.

Uses: Furniture, flooring (quartersawn), heavy construction, and general carpentry.

Additional Reading (33), (41), (72)

Rhizophora mangle

Mangle Colorado Red Mangrove

Family: Rhizophoraceae

Other Common Names: Candelón, Mangle dulce (Mexico), Mangle rojo (Colombia), Purgua (Venezuela), Apareiba, Manguè sapateiro (Brazil), Mangle geli (Ecuador).

Distribution: Coastal areas and brackish streambanks from central and southern Florida southward to Ecuador, northwestern Peru, and Brazil, including the West Indies. Also in Melanesia, Polynesia, and the Galapagos Islands.

The Tree

On favorable sites trees may reach heights of 100 ft with trunk diameters 18 to 24, sometimes up to 36 in., with clear boles to 30 to 40 ft. Stems develop stilt- like roots forming impenetrable thickets.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light red, deepening to dark red or reddish brown, sometimes purplish; uniform or more or less striped; rather sharply defined from the yellowish, grayish, or pinkish sapwood. Texture fine to medium; grain straight to irregular; luster low; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.89; air-dry density 67 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (49) 15,200 2,300 6,490 12% 21,700 2,950 10,750

12% (44) 24,000 3,260

15% (5) 28,400 3,480 13,500

Janka side hardness 2,240 lb for green material and 2,760 lb at 12% moisture content.

Drying and Shrinkage: Drying rate is moderate during air-seasoning; warp is severe as is surface and end checking. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 5.0%; tangential 10.7%; volumetric 14.3%.

Working Properties: Generally difficult to work because of its high density; can finish smoothly where grain is straight.

Durability: Heartwood is reported to be resistant to attack by decay fungi but not to marine borers and dry-wood termites.

Preservation: Both heartwood and sapwood resistant to impregnation.

Uses: Boat construction, general heavy construction, charcoal, railroad crossties, turnery, bark has a high tannin content (30% based on ovendry weight) and is used commercially.

Additional Reading (5), (44), (49)

Sapium spp. Lechero Curupi

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Other Common Names: Hierba mala, Mago (Mexico), Olivo (Panama), Palo de leche, Caucho (Colombia), Lechero (Venezuela), Pau de leite, Tapurú (Brazil), Caucho- mashán (Peru), Curupi, Lecherón (Argentina).

Distribution: Throughout tropical America from Mexico and the West Indies to Uruguay and Argentina.

The Tree

May attain heights of 90 to 115 ft with a well-formed trunk sometimes 36 in. in diameter. in some species, the inner bark contains a poisonous latex.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood whitish, yellowish, or light brown, not distinct from the cream-colored sapwood. Grain is straight to slightly interlocked; luster is low; texture medium; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.47; air-dry density 36 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, the third on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 7,700 1,480 3,200 12% 10,790 1,680 6,120

12% (44) 12,000 2,140

12% (41) 11,900 6,150

Janka side hardness 520 lb for green material and 700 lb for dry. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material 84 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen). Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is reported to air-dry rapidly with only slight warping and checking. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.3%; tangential 6.6%; volumetric 9.2%.

Working Properties: The wood works easily because of its low density; sometimes surfaces are fuzzy but generally machines smoothly. One report indicates difficulty in sanding.

Durability: The wood has low resistance to decay and insect attack, including dry-wood termites. Lumber is particularly prone to blue stain.

Preservation: Both heartwood and sapwood are easy to treat; high absorptions and complete penetration are obtained using either pressure-vacuum or open-tank systems.

Uses: Plywood, fiberboard, particleboard, general carpentry, millwork, utility furniture, boxes and crates.

Additional Reading (41), (44), (73)

Schinopsis spp.

Quebracho

Family: Anacardiaceae

Other Common Names: Baraúva, Braúna, Quebracho hembra (Brazil), Quebracho colorado, Q. chaqueño, Q. santiagueno (Argentina).

Distribution: Botanical range extends over northern Argentina, western Paraguay, a small portion of Bolivia, and to the interior of the state of Bahia in Brazil.

The Tree

Scrubby growth 30 to 50 ft high; 12 to 36 in. in diameter. Trunks are often bent and twisted and swollen at the base. S. balansae reported to reach a height of 80 ft and a diameter of 60 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light red, deepening to brick red, uniform or with black streaks; distinct but not sharply demarcated from the yellowish sapwood. Luster low to medium; texture fine and uniform; grain irregular, often roey; odor not distinctive, taste astringent. Heartwood contains 20 to 30% tannin.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 1.00; air-dry density 75 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (Standard not known)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

15% (69) 19,800 2,190

15% (69) 13,800 1,950 8,900

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to check and warp severely, particularly when cut into thin boards. A kiln schedule similar to T1 -B1 has been suggested. No data available on shrinkage values.

Working Properties: Very difficult to work, especially when dry, but takes a high natural polish.

Durability: Highly durable, though standing trees are often defective as a result of heart rot.

Preservation: No data available.

Uses: Tannin extraction, railroad crossties, heavy construction, fenceposts, poles, fuel.

Additional Reading (56), (69)

Sclerolobium spp.

Djedoe Yawaredan

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Jawaledan, Yawarridana (Guyana), Rode Djedoe, Witte Djedoe, Djaditja (Surinam), Passariuva, Tachy, Tachyrana (Brazil).

Distribution: Tropical Brazil, eastern Peru, the Guianas, and Venezuela.

The Tree

Sometimes reaches a height of 130 ft with diameters to 28 in. Boles are cylindrical and clear to 60 ft and more.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood pale to rather dark brown with a pinkish, yellowish, or olive tinge; scarcely distinct from the sapwood. Luster high; texture medium to coarse; grain straight to interlocked; tasteless but some species have a mild scent.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.47; air-dry density 35 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First and third sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, second set on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                        Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 7,750 1,750 3,850 12% 13,150 2,040 6,530

Green (30) 8,150 1,300 3,620 15% 11,750 5,800

15% (34) 10,380 1,460 5,550

Janka side hardness about 700 lb for dry material. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 159 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to be easy to air-season in that drying rates are rapid; however, this does cause moderate warp and slight checking. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.4%; tangential 8.9%; volumetric 12.3%.

Working Properties: The wood is easily worked; sawn surfaces are somewhat fuzzy; planing usually results in chipped and torn grain, particularly on quartered surfaces of roey material. Dust from machining operations reported to be extremely irritating.

Durability: Pure culture decay studies show the heartwood to be durable with respect to a white-rot fungus; however, wood of this genus is generally reported to be low in decay resistance and susceptible to dry-wood termite attack.

Preservation: Reported to be difficult to impregnate.

Uses: Light construction under cover, utility furniture, boxes and crates, suggested as a veneer wood.

Additional Reading (30), (34), (75)

Sickingia spp.

Araríba

Family: Rubiaceae

Other Common Names: Guayatil colorado, Palo colorado (Panama), Brasilete, Carmesí (Colombia), Aguacatire, Paraguatá (Venezuela), Palo rosado (Peru), Arareua, Arariba, Pau Brasil (Brazil).

Distribution: Continental tropical America from southern Mexico to southern Brazil and Paraguay.

The Tree

Sometimes 65 ft in height with a trunk diameter of 20 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood rather dark brown, usually poorly developed; sapwood usually becoming red, pink, or violet rose throughout or more often variegated and often fading to yellowish brown on the surface. Luster medium to low; texture rather fine and uniform; grain straight to irregular; odorless when dry, taste slightly bitter.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.52; air-dry density 40 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (32) 10,800 1,200 5,030 15% 14,400 6,700

Janka side hardness for green material 1,070 lb. Amsler toughness at 15% moisture content 130 in-lb (2-cm specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: No information available on drying characteristics. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.8%; tangential 8.2%; volumetric 10.6%.

Working Properties: Working properties are reported as good.

Durability: Based on a laboratory evaluation, reported to have moderate resistance to attack by decay fungi.

Preservation: Reported to be highly permeable.

Uses: Turnery, boxes and crates, interior trim, millwork, light construction. Wood and bark yield a red dye used commercially.

Additional Reading (32), (56)

Simarouba amara

Simarouba Marupa

Family: Simaroubaceae

Other Common Names: Aceituno (Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama), Cedro blanco, Simaruba (Venezuela), Soemaroeba (Surinam), Caixeta, Marupá, Marubá (Brazil), Acajou blanc (Fr. Guiana).

Distribution: Northern South America from Venezuela and the Guianas to the Amazon region of Brazil, also in Trinidad and Tobago.

The Tree

A large unbuttressed tree reaching a height of 140 ft and diameters of 20 to 24 in., occasionally 36 in. Boles are straight, cylindrical, strongly tapered, frequently clear to 70 to 90 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood not differentiated from the whitish or straw- colored sapwood, with occasional oily streaks. Luster rather high; texture medium and uniform; grain usually straight; without odor but with a bitter quinine-like taste. Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.38; air-dry density 27 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-in. standard, second set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 6,310 1,140 2,970 12% 8,930 1,240 4,840 12% (24) 8,350 1,290 4,900

Janka side hardness 390 lb for green material and 440 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material 66 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to be easy to air-season, boards dry rapidly with little or no degrade. No information on kiln schedules available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 2.3%; tangential 5.0%; volumetric 8.0%.

Working Properties: The wood works easily and machines to a smooth clean surface. Freshly felled logs tend to split in sawing due to internal stresses. The wood is easy to finish and to glue.

Durability: Pure culture tests indicate the wood to be somewhat durable to a white-rot and brown-rot fungus; however, actual graveyard evaluations show the wood to be readily attacked by decay fungi and insects. The wood is also very susceptible to dry-wood termite attack and prone to blue stain.

Preservation: Absorption and penetration of wood preservatives are excellent using either a pressure-vacuum system or open-tank methods.

Uses: Interior construction, boxes and crates, furniture components, veneer and plywood, patternmaking, millwork, particleboard and fiberboard. Additional

Reading (24), (46), (72), (74)

Spondias mombin

Jobo Hog Plum

Family: Anacardiaceae

Other Common Names: Balá (Costa Rica), Jobito (Panama), Jobo blanco (Colombia), Jobo corronchoso (Venezuela), Hoeboe (Surinam), Acaiba, Cajá, Pau da tapera (Brazil), Ubo (Peru), Hobo (Mexico).

Distribution: Throughout most of the West Indies and from southern Mexico to Peru and Brazil; in part cultivated or naturalized. The tree is planted in many tropical areas.

The Tree

The tree is up to 130 ft in height with diameters to 48 in. Boles with basal swelling, at times coarsely furrowed, clear 60 to 80 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood cream to buff colored, not distinguished from the sapwood. Luster medium; texture medium to coarse; grain straight to slightly irregular; odorless and tasteless.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.40; air-dry density 29 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, the third set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 6,400 1,160 2,560 12% 8,810 1,280 4,410

12% (44) 8,050 1,330

12% (24) 9,500 6,450

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content ranges from 335 to 510 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 74 in.-lb. (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-dries rapidly but develops moderate warp and slight checking. No data are available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.7%; tangential 4.7%; volumetric 7.5%.

Working Properties: The wood is easy to work and generally finishes smoothly; fuzzy grain may develop in some operations.

Durability: The wood has low resistance to attack by decay fungi and insects and is particularly prone to blue stain. Logs need to be promptly processed to minimize deterioration.

Preservation: Deep penetration and high chemical absorption are easily obtained using either a pressure-vacuum or open-tank system.

Uses: Boxes and crates, general carpentry, millwork, utility plywood, furniture components; often planted as "live fencing."

Additional Reading (24), (44), (73)

Sterculia apetala

Chicha

Family: Sterculiaceae

Other Common Names: Anacagita (Puerto Rico), Bellota, Chiapas (Mexico), Panamá (Panama), Sunsún (Venezuela), Camajurú (Colombia).

Distribution: Southern Mexico and Central America to Peru and Brazil. Widely planted elsewhere in the tropics as a shade tree, for the edible seeds, and as a honey plant.

The Tree

May reach a height of 130 ft and a trunk diameter of 80 in.; develops prominent, narrow buttresses.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light brown, reddish brown, or yellowish brown, not sharply demarcated from the yellowish sapwood. Luster medium; texture medium; grain straight to irregular; without distinctive odor or taste. Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.33; air-dry density 25 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, the third on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 4,460 980 2,140 12% 7,110 960 4,230

12% (44) 4,900 965

12% (24) 5,900 3,680

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content ranges from 270 to 530 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material 48 in.-lb. (5/8- in. specimen). Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to air-dry well if dried slowly; prone to collapse. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.7%; tangential 8.3%; volumetric 11.8%.

Working Properties: Generally reported to be easy to work with both hand and machine tools; timber from Panama showed considerable fuzzy grain after planing.

Durability: No resistance to attack by decay fungi or insects, also prone to blue stain.

Preservation: One report describes this wood as very easy to treat obtaining high absorption and deep and uniform penetration, another rates this wood as moderately difficult.

Uses: Boxes and crates, interior construction, plywood, particleboard, millwork.

Additional Reading (24), (44), (75)

Sterculia pruriens

Sterculia

Family: Sterculiaceae Other Common Names: Yahu, Maho, Manmaho (Guyana), Chicha brava, Capote, Envireira (Brazil).

Distribution: Occurs in the Guianas and northern Brazil.

The Tree

Sometimes reaches a height of 130 ft and trunk diameters of 36 in.; more commonly 100 ft in height with diameters around 24 in. Boles are clear to 60 to 70 ft with low taper.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood whitish or grayish and not distinct from the sapwood. Texture medium to coarse; grain usually straight; somewhat lustrous; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.46; air-dry density 37 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard, second on the 2-cm standard, third on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (40) 9,000 1,890 4,350 12% 9,700 1,930 8,230

12% (42) 12,400 1,605 7,100

12% (24) 12,600 1,780 6,550

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content ranges from 770 to 825 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness at 12% moisture content 116 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to be moderately difficult to air-season, dries rapidly but tends to warp. Kiln schedule T2-D4 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T2- D3 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.7%; tangential 9.9%; volumetric 15.4%. Movement after manufacture is rated as large.

Working Properties: The wood works easily with both hand and machine tools; a smooth finish is obtained if sharp cutters are used.

Durability: Not resistant to attack by decay fungi and very susceptible to both dry-wood and subterranean termites. Also prone to blue stain.

Preservation: Reported to be moderately resistant to penetration using creosote oils.

Uses: Light construction work, interior joinery, boxes and crates, pulp and paper.

Additional Reading (24), (40), (42), (46)

Swartzia spp.

Wamara Bannia

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Naranjillo (Mexico, Honduras, Panama), Parakusan (Guyana), Gandoe, Ijzerhart (Surinam), Alma negra (Colombia), Orura barrialera (Venezuela), Icoje (Peru), Pau ferro, Mututy (Brazil).

Distribution: Southern Mexico, through Central America, the West Indies and southward to northern South America; especially abundant in the Guianas and the Amazon region.

The Tree

Size varies considerably with species, some reaching heights of 110 ft with trunk diameters commonly to 24 in., but reaching 36 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood dark brown, reddish brown, or nearly black, in solid color or somewhat variegated; sharply demarcated from the nearly white to yellowish sapwood. Texture very fine to medium; luster usually medium; grain straight to irregular; without distinctive odor or taste. Dust irritating to some workers.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.87 to 1.02; air- dry density 65 to 75 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First and third sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, the second set on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 22,870 3,000 12,930 12% 26,370 3,630 15,440

Green (42) 21,400 2,480 10,500 12% 32,600 3,220 16,500

15% (34) 23,460 2,620 12,900

Janka side hardness 3,325 to 4,060 lb for dry material. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 260 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Generally reported to be moderately difficult to air-dry because of checking and warp. Kiln schedule T2-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T2-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.9%; tangential 7.6%; volumetric 11.2%. Movement after manufacture of some species is reported high.

Working Properties: The woods are difficult to work because of their high density, but finish very smoothly and takes a high polish. Workers should be protected from the irritating dust of some species (S. bannia).

Durability: Heartwood is very resistant to attack by decay fungi and resistant to dry-wood termites. Not resistant to marine borers.

Preservation: No information available.

Uses: inlay, parquet flooring, turnery, furniture, cabinetwork, violin bows, specialty items, suggested as a substitute for ebony.

Additional Reading (34), (42), (46), (75)

Swietenia macrophylla

Honduras Mahogany Caoba

Family: Meliaceae

Other Common Names: Caoba (throughout Latin America), Acajou (French-speaking areas).

Distribution: Southern Mexico southward to Colombia, Venezuela, and parts of the upper Amazon and its tributaries in Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Plantations have been established within its natural range and elsewhere.

The Tree

Sometimes 150 ft in height and 6 ft and more in diameter above the heavy buttresses; boles are clear from 60 to 80 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood reddish, pinkish, salmon colored, or yellowish when fresh; deepening with age to deep rich red or brown; distinct from the yellowish or whitish sapwood. Luster high and golden; texture rather fine to coarse; grain straight to roey, wavy, or curly, often with an attractive figure; odor and taste not distinctive.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.40 to 0.68; air- dry density 30 to 52 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, the third on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 8,960 1,280 4,340 12% 11,590 1,420 6,470

Green (73) 8,960 1,340 4,340 12% 11,460 1,500 6,780

12% (42) 12,000 1,270 6,400

Janka side hardness 740 lb for green material and 800 lb for dry. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material 82 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen). Drying and Shrinkage: The wood can be air-seasoned and kiln-dried easily without appreciable warping or checking. Kiln schedule T6-D4 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D3 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.0%; tangential 4.1%; volumetric 7.8%. Movement after manufacture is rated as small.

Working Properties: Very easy to work with hand and machine tools, torn and chipped grain is common with figured material. Easy to finish and takes an excellent polish. Slices and rotary cuts into fine veneer.

Durability: Generally heartwood rates as durable in resistance to a brown-rot and a white-rot fungus. Moderately resistant to dry-wood termites and little resistance to attack by marine borers.

Preservation: Both heartwood and sapwood are resistant to impregnation with preservatives.

Uses: Fine furniture and cabinetmaking, interior trim, paneling, fancy veneers, musical instruments, boat building, patternmaking, turnery, and carving.

Additional Reading (42), (46), (56), (73)

Symphonia globulifera

Manni Chewstick

Family: Guttiferae

Other Common Names: Barillo (Guatemala, Honduras), Cerillo (Costa Rica, Panama), Machare (Colombia), Mani, Paramán (Venezuela), Mataki (Surinam), Manni (Guyana), Anany (Brazil), Brea-caspi (Peru).

Distribution: West Indies, Central America, and northern South America, also occurs in tropical West Africa. The trees are most abundant and reach their best development in swamp and marsh areas.

The Tree

Frequently 100 ft in height with trunk diameters of 20 to 30 in.; exceptional specimens are 135 ft tall with diameters over 40 in. Stems develop stiltroots with numerous elbow buttresses.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellowish- , grayish- , or greenish brown or striped in these shades; distinct from the whitish sapwood. Luster somewhat medium, variable; texture coarse; grain straight to irregular; without distinctive odor or taste; has a mealy appearance because of the abundant soft parenchyma tissue. Silica reported to range up to 0.21%.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.58; air-dry density 44 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First and third sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, the second set on the 2-cm standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (75) 11,180 1,960 5,160 12% 16,860 2,460 8,820

Green (42) 12,450 1,890 6,040 12% 19,000 2,060 9,650

12% (44) 16,500 2,360

Janka side hardness for green material 940 lb, 1,120 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 157 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Generally reported to air season rapidly but with moderate warping and checking. Kiln schedule T3-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 5.7%; tangential 9.7%; volumetric 15.6%.

Working Properties: Very easy to work with both hand and machine tools, but surfaces tend to roughen in planing and shaping.

Durability: Heartwood is durable in ground contact; only moderately resistant to dry-wood and subterranean termites.

Preservation: The wood is rated as resistant to impregnation. Uses: Railroad crossties, general construction, cooperage, furniture components, flooring, utility plywood, suggested as an oak substitute. The bark contains a yellowish resin that is medicinal, used to caulk boats, and as a substitute for shoemaker's pitch. Additional Reading (42), (44), (46), (75)

Tabebuia spp. (Lapacho group)

Ipe Bethabara Lapacho

Family: Bignoniaceae

Other Common Names: Amapa (Mexico), Cortez (Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica), Guayacán (Panama), Guayacan polvillo (Colombia), Flor Amarillo (Venezuela), Greenhart (Surinam), Madera negra (Ecuador), Tahuari (Peru), Ipˆ (Brazil), Lapacho negro (Paraguay, Argentina).

Distribution: Throughout continental tropical America and some of the Lesser Antilles. The tree grows on a variety of sites, from ridge tops to riverbanks and marsh forests.

The Tree

May grow to 140 to 150 ft in height with trunk diameters of 6 ft. Frequently to heights of 100 ft and diameters of 2 to 3 ft. Boles are clear to 60 ft and more, with or without buttresses.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood olive brown to blackish, often with lighter or darker striping, often covered with a yellow powder; sharply demarcated from the whitish or yellowish sapwood. Texture fine to medium; luster low to medium; grain straight to very irregular; rather oily looking; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.85 to 0.97; air- dry density 66 to 75 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First and third sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, the second on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 22,560 2,920 10,350 12% 25,360 3,140 13,010 12% (24) 25,200 3,010 14,000

12% (44) 28,000 3,350

Janka side hardness 3,060 lb for green material and 3,680 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 404 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Generally reported to air-dry rapidly with only slight checking and warping. Kiln schedule T3-C1 is suggested for 4/4 stock. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 6.6%; tangential 8.0%; volumetric 13.2%. Movement after manufacture is rated as small.

Working Properties: Moderately difficult to work especially with handtools; has a blunting effect on cutting edges, finishes smoothly except where grain is very roey. The fine yellow dust produced in most operations may cause dermatitis in some workers.

Durability: Heartwood is very resistant to attack by decay fungi and termites; not resistant to marine borers. T. guayacan however, is reported to have good resistance in Panama waters.

Preservation: The wood is reported to be extremely resistant to preservation treatments.

Uses: Railroad crossties, heavy construction, tool handles, turnery, industrial flooring, textile mill items, decorative veneers.

Additional Reading (24), (44), (46), (73)

Tabebuia spp. (Roble group)

Roble Mayflower

Family: Bignoniaceae

Other Common Names: Roble (Spanish America), Amapa, Roble blanco (Mexico), Roble blanco, Roble de sabana (Costa Rica), Roble del rio (Colombia), Apamate (Venezuela).

Distribution: From the West Indies and southern Mexico to Venezuela and Ecuador. Inhabits various sites from wet lowlands to dry mountainsides. The Tree

A medium-sized tree 40 to 60 ft high, but occasionally reaching a height of 90 ft; diameters commonly 18 to 24 in., sometimes reaching 36 in.; buttresses often extend 7 to 10 ft above the ground; widely planted as an ornamental.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light brown to golden; not clearly differentiated from the sapwood. Luster low to medium; texture medium to rather coarse; grain straight to roey; without distinctive odor or taste when dry.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.52; air-dry density 40 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, the third set on the 1-in. standard.)< lit> Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Psi 1,000 psi Psi

Green (74) 10,770 1,450 4,910 12% 13,780 1,600 7,340

Green (40) 9,600 1,620 5,030 12% 12,500 1,750 6,010

12% (41) 14,700 7,050

Janka side hardness for green wood 910 lb, 960 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 147 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons and kiln-dries rapidly with little or no checking and warping. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 3.6%; tangential 6.1%; volumetric 9.5%.

Working Properties: The wood has excellent machining characteristics but some care is required in planing to prevent torn and chipped grain. Finishes well, easy to glue. With care, cuts well into sliced veneer.

Durability: Both pure culture tests and field evaluations indicate the wood to be moderately durable to very durable; reported to be very susceptible to dry- wood termite attack and little resistance to marine borers.

Preservation: Penetration and absorption of preservative solutions are low, even in the sapwood. This may be improved somewhat by incising.

Uses: Flooring, furniture, cabinetwork, interior trim, tool handles, decorative veneers, boat building. For some applications suggested as a substitute for ash and oak.

Additional Reading (40), (41), (46), (74)

Tabebuia spp. (White-Cedar group)

White-Cedar White Tabebuia

Family: Bignoniaceae

Other Common Names: White-cedar, Warakuri (Guyana), Zwamp panta (Surinam), Bois blanchet, Cèdre blanc (French Guiana).

Distribution: The Guiana region and Brazil.

The Tree

Trees are commonly 90 ft high and about 12 in. in diameter but occasionally up to 16 in. Fluted buttresses range up to 12 ft in height (T. insignis). T. stenocalyx is a larger tree growing to a height of 150 ft with trunk diameters to 3 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood brownish with reddish or olive hue, also creamy or yellowish, varying in different specimens; not sharply demarcated from the sapwood. Luster rather high; texture medium and uniform; grain fairly straight; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.57; air-dry density 42 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard, the second set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (40) 13,700 2,300 6,200 12% 14,900 2,260 8,240

12% (24) 18,600 2,040 9,340

Janka side hardness for dry material 1,160 to 1,400 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness at 12% moisture content 126 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to be easy to air season. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.7%; tangential 7.2%; volumetric 10.8%.

Working Properties: Dry lumber machines easily with smooth clean surfaces in all operations. Green logs are reported to spring badly in sawing.

Durability: The wood does not have decay resistance and is vulnerable to termite attack.

Preservation: Both sapwood and heartwood are reported to have good absorption and penetration of preservatives using either a pressure-vacuum or open-tank system.

Uses: Tool handles, furniture, flooring, interior trim, general carpentry, boxes, and crates. Suggested as a possible substitute for ash and birch.

Additional Reading (24), (40), (46), (72)

Terminalia amazonia syn. T. obovata

Nargusta

Family: Combretaceae

Other Common Names: Almendro (Honduras), Canshán (Mexico), Amarillo carabazuelo (Panama), Guayabo león (Colombia), Pardillo negro (Venezuela), Pau-mulato brancho (Brazil).

Distribution: Southern Mexico southward through Central America and into northern South America to Brazil and Peru; also Trinidad. The tree is common in the Wallaba forests of Guyana. Concentrations of four to five trees per acre are not unusual in Belize.

The Tree

May reach a height of 140 ft with diameters of 4 to 5 ft. Trees with diameters over 20 to 25 in. are often hollow. Long, clear, symmetrical boles are 60 to 70 ft long above the large buttresses.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood variable from yellowish olive to golden brown, sometimes with prominent reddish-brown stripes; not readily separated from the yellowish sapwood. Luster medium to rather high; texture medium; grain roey; without distinctive odor or taste in dry material.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.58 to 0.73; air- dry density 44 to 56 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard, the second on the 2-cm standard, and the third on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 12,130 2,010 5,530 12% 17,750 2,300 9,540

Green (42) 13,600 1,890 6,700 12% 19,100 2,130 10,350

12% (24) 25,200 2,910 11,600

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content 1,610 to 2,100 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 187 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Very variable in seasoning characteristics; some material reported easy to dry with little or no degrade; other material dried with difficulty and with considerable warp and checking. Kiln schedule T3-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 6.4%; tangential 8.7%; volumetric 14.9%. Working Properties: Generally reported to be somewhat fair to difficult to work with hand and machine tools; straight-grained material planes well, some tearing occurs on strongly roey surfaces.

Durability: Pure culture tests showed the wood to be durable to both a white-rot and brown-rot fungus. Results of graveyard tests indicate considerable variability from very durable to only slight or fair resistance. Reported to be resistant to dry-wood termites but not to subterranean termites.

Preservation: Heartwood is extremely resistant to preservation treatments, treatability of sapwood is variable.

Uses: Flooring, railroad crossties, furniture and cabinet work, shipbuilding, turnery, general construction, utility plywood. It is suggested as a possible substitute for oak.

Additional Reading (24), (42), (46), (74)

Tetragastris spp.

Sali Masa

Family: Burseraceae

Other Common Names: Masa, Palo de aceite (Puerto Rico), Kerosèn (Nicaragua), Palo de cerdo, Aguarrás (Colombia), Haiawaballi (Guyana), Gommier, Encens rouge (French Guiana), Almesca (Brazil).

Distribution: West Indies, Central America, and northern South America. Widely distributed and locally frequent in the high forests of Surinam.

The Tree

Varies with species but may reach a height of 100 ft with diameters up to 28 in. Boles with a few buttresses, of moderately good form, and clear for 30 to 40 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood orange brown; rather sharply demarcated from the yellowish-brown sapwood. Luster medium to rather high; texture fine; grain mostly irregular to distinctly roey; without distinctive taste, but with fragrant balsamic scent. A silica content of 0.13% is reported.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.63 to 0.78; air-dry density 48 to 61 pcf. Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, the third set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 12,380 1,650 5,460 12% 16,090 1,890 8,380

Green (25) 12,300 1,940 6,800 12% 15,200 2,180 8,300

12% (24) 19,400 2,410 10,200

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content 1,770 to 2,170 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material 223 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Seasoning properties vary with species from rapid drying with little or no degrade to rather slow drying with a tendency to check and split. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.4%; tangential 8.5%; volumetric 13.9%.

Working Properties: Reported to be moderately difficult to moderately easy to machine, varying with species. Steam-bending characteristics are fair to good.

Durability: Heartwood is rated durable to very durable in its resistance to both brown-rot and white-rot fungi, but only somewhat resistant to attack by dry-wood termites.

Preservation: Heartwood is highly resistant to preservation treatments; however sapwood is reported as responsive.

Uses: Heavy construction, flooring, furniture, interior trim, slack cooperage, railroad crossties. Suggested as a substitute for birch and maple.

Additional Reading (24), (25), (72), (74)

Triplaris spp.

Long John Mierenhout

Family: Polygonaceae

Other Common Names: Palo mulato (Mexico), Hormigo (Costa Rica), Palo hormiguero (Panama), Palo santo (Colombia), Vara de maria (Venezuela), Mierenhout (Surinam), Long John (Guyana), Tangarana (Peru), Formigueira (Brazil).

Distribution: Southern Mexico, through Central America, and tropical South America. In Surinam the tree is dominant in swamps and frequent on low riverbanks. Sometimes forming almost pure stands on abandoned clearings.

The Tree

A medium-sized tree, becoming 70 ft tall and 18 in. in diameter; the bole is slightly angled or fluted and has low narrow buttresses. Hollow stems are inhabited by small vicious ants which emerge quickly and attack anyone molesting the tree.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Sapwood not distinct from heartwood which is a pale gray brown to pinkish brown. Luster medium; texture medium to moderately coarse; grain straight or slightly interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.50 to 0.62; air-dry density 38 to 48 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard, second and third sets on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

15% (34) 13,230 1,880 7,040

12% (24) 15,000 2,020 8,000

12% (41) 18,300 8,100

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content 1,040 to 1,820 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness for dry material varied from 121 to 186 in.-lb. (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Drying reported to vary from fairly slow to rapid, depending on species, with medium warping and checking Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 414 stock. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.5%; tangential 8.6%; volumetric 12.3%.

Working Properties: Machines well in all operations, but rated only fair in turning.

Durability: Not resistant to attack by decay fungi and vulnerable to dry-wood termites.

Preservation: Tests in Venezuela show this wood to be difficult to treat with preservatives.

Uses: Furniture components, boxes and crates, interior construction, fiberboard and particleboard, joinery.

Additional ReadIng (24), (34), (41)

Trophis spp.

Ramón Morillo

Family: Moraceae

Other Common Names: Ramón de Castilla (Mexico), San Ramón (Honduras), Gallote, Morillo (Panama), Guáimaro (Colombia), Charo negro, Marfil (Venezuela), Cuchara- caspi (Peru).

Distribution: Throughout the West Indies, southern Mexico, Central America, and the Andean region of South America into Peru.

The Tree

A medium-sized tree 70 ft high with a trunk diameter of 18 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood light to dark brown with parenchyma markings suggesting elm; sharply demarcated from the creamy to yellowish sapwood. Fairly lustrous; texture medium; grain straight to irregular; without distinctive odor or taste. Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.42 to 0.65; air-dry density 31 to 50 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (1-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

12% (41) 11,200 6,000

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content 770 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness at the same moisture content 96 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reported to air-dry rapidly. No data available on kiln schedules or shrinkage properties.

Working Properties: Reports vary from abrasive and difficult to work to machines without difficulty and finishes smoothly.

Durability: Graveyard tests in Venezuela indicate the wood to be very susceptible to attack by decay fungi and insects.

Preservation: High chemical absorptions for both heartwood and sapwood are reported using either a pressure-vacuum or open-tank system, penetrations were vascular.

Uses: Suggested as a veneer for plywood and scaffolding in Venezuela.

Additional Reading (41), (56)

Vatairea spp.

Bitter Angelim Faveira

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Amargoso (Honduras), Amargo amargo (Panama), Arisauru, Yaksaru (Guyana), Mora (Nicaragua), Gele Kabbes (Surinam), Angelim, Faveira (Brazil).

Distribution: Southern Mexico, southward along the Atlantic region of Central America, and through Venezuela to the Rio de Janeiro region of Brazil.

The Tree

Sometimes to a height of 125 ft with trunk diameters to 6 ft, commonly to 3 ft, boles have narrow high buttresses and may be clear for 70 ft.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellow, becoming orange brown on exposure, striped with parenchyma, sometimes with oily appearance; distinct from the whitish, grayish, or brownish-yellow sapwood. Luster variable; texture coarse to very coarse; grain straight to strongly interlocked; without distinctive odor but with bitter taste. Silica content of 0.2% is reported.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.55 to 0.64; air-dry density 42 to 49 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (25) 10,300 1,700 5,020 12% 14,600 1,790 6,950

12% (44) 17,200 2,340

15% (34) 11,520 1,460 5,900

Janka side hardness for dry material 1,080 to 1,420 lb.

Drying and Shrinkage: The wood is reported to have a moderate air-drying rate with little or no drying defects. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.4%; tangential 7.4%; volumetric 8.6%.

Working Properties: Generally reported to be moderately good in machining characteristics but torn and raised grain in planing is common. Fine dust raised during working affects some operators.

Durability: Heartwood is rated as moderately durable to durable based on graveyard tests.

Preservation: Heartwood is reported to be very difficult to preserve, treatment of sapwood is good.

Uses: Construction work, flooring, general carpentry, railroad crossties.

Additional Reading (25), (34), (44)

Virola spp.

Banak Baboen

Family: Myristicaceae

Other Common Names: Sangre, Palo de sangre (Guatemala, Honduras), Sangredrago (Nicaragua), Fruta dorada (Costa Rica), Miguelarillo (Panama), Sangre de toro (Colombia), Camaticaro (Venezuela), Baboen (Surinam), Bicuiba (Brazil), Cumala (Peru).

Distribution: Varying with species from Belize and Guatemala southward to Venezuela, the Guianas, the Amazon region of northern Brazil, southern Brazil, and on the Pacific Coast, to Peru and Bolivia; common in swamp and marsh forests.

The Tree

May reach a height of 140 ft with trunk diameters of 5 ft, usually much shorter and only 2 to 3 ft in diameter. Boles are heavily buttressed, cylindrical, and clear for more than two-thirds of total height.

The Wood

General Characteristics: On drying and exposure, heartwood becomes a pinkish golden brown or deep reddish brown; sapwood cream to tan color, not always sharply demarcated. Luster low to medium; texture rather coarse; grain straight; without distinctive odor or taste.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies considerably with species from about 0.36 to 0.61, commonly 0.44; air-dry density 27 to 46 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on the 2-in. standard, the second set on the 2-cm standard, and the third set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 5,600 1,640 2,390 12% 10,950 2,040 5,140

Green (42) 6,520 1,380 3,180 12% 11,450 1,610 5,950

12% (24) 7,780 1,280 4,740

Janka side hardness for dry material 450 to 640 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material 61 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Generally reported to be difficult to season with a strong tendency to warp and check as well as collapse and honeycomb; thick stock slow to dry. Kiln schedule T3-C2 suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.6%; tangential 8.8%; volumetric 13.7%.

Working Properties: Works easily with both hand and machine tools and produces a good finish, glues well; cuts well into veneers.

Durability: The wood is not resistant to attack by decay fungi and is very susceptible to attack by termites and other insects. Logs require prompt conversion or water storage to prevent damage by pinhole borers. Bacterial attack resulting in the formation of odoriferous compounds is also reported.

Preservation: The timber is reported to be easily impregnated with preservatives using either pressure-vacuum or open-tank systems.

Uses: Veneer and plywood, particleboard and fiberboard, furniture components, boxes and crates, light construction, general carpentry, millwork. Oil is extracted from seeds of Virola and used in soaps and candles.

Additional Reading (24), (42), (46), (73)

Vitex spp.

Fiddlewood Aceituno

Family: Verbenaceae

Other Common Names: Negrito coyote (Mexico), Barbás, Rajate bin (Guatemala, Honduras), Cuajado (Panama), Aceituno (Colombia, Venezuela), Perchiche (Ecuador), Tahuari (Peru), Tarumá cheiroso (Brazil).

Distribution: Throughout tropical America from Mexico and the West Indies southward to Argentina and Uruguay.

The Tree

Size varies with species but may reach a height of 75 to 100 ft with trunk diameters of 24 to 36 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood variable with species; yellowish brown, deep brown, olive green, or olive brown; usually not sharply demarcated from the whitish, yellow, or pale brown sapwood. Luster low to high; texture rather fine to moderately coarse; grain straight, sometimes irregular; without distinctive odor or taste. A silica content of 0.76% is reported.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.52 to 0.60; air- dry density 40 to 46 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (First and third sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, the second set on the 1-in. standard.)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 9,420 1,490 4,780 12% 12,890 1,570 7,010

12% (24) 17,700 2,400 10,900

12% (44) 16,600 2,040

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content 1,160 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material 108 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Reports are variable, material from Panama had a moderate drying rate and no appreciable defects; V. gaumeri from Belize is somewhat difficult to season with a moderate amount of crook and checking. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 3.2%; tangential 6.4%; volumetric 10.4%.

Working Properties: Easy to work with both hand and machine tools though there is some tearing if grain is irregular; takes a high polish; v cooper; splits readily while V. gaumeri is very difficult to split.

Durability: Depending on species, varied from moderately durable to very durable when exposed to a white-rot and brown-rot fungus. Actual field exposures show some species as durable and others as susceptible to attack by decay fungi and insects.

Preservation: Heartwood is not treatable, sapwood has good absorption and penetration of preservatives using either a pressure-vacuum or open-tank system.

Uses: Furniture, millwork, veneer and plywood, general carpentry, mallet heads, chisel handles (V. gaumeri), flooring.

Additional Reading (24), (41), (44), (74)

Vochysia spp.

Yemeri Quaruba

Family: Vochysiaceae

Other Common Names: Corpus (Mexico), Yemeri (Belize, Nicaragua), Corosillo (Panama), Dormilon (Colombia), Tin-tin (Venezuela), Kwari (Surinam), Kouali (French Guiana), Chambo caspi (Peru), Quaruba (Brazil).

Distribution: Throughout tropical America from southern Mexico to Peru but most abundant in the Guianas and Brazil. The trees make their best growth on coastal plains and along waterways, forms almost pure stands on abandoned farms.

The Tree

Varies with species, commonly 100 ft in height with diameters of 24 in.; however trees to a height of 190 ft and diameters up to 6 ft are reported. Boles are sometimes basally swollen or buttressed, cylindrical, and clear.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood a dull uniform pink, pinkish brown golden brown; not always sharply demarcated from the whitish to yellowish sapwood. Luster medium to high; texture is moderately coarse; grain slightly to highly interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste. Vertical traumatic gum ducts may occur sporadically and are sometimes considered as an objectionable defect.

Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.37 to 0.57,commonly close to 0.40; air-dry density ranges from 28 to 43 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (74) 6,120 1,220 2,760 12% 9,090 1,390 5,840

Green (25) 6,300 1,250 3,000 12% 11,300 1,670 5,550

Janka side hardness at 12% moisture content ranges from 530 to 680 lb. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry wood is 97 in.-lb (5/8- in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Air-drying rates range from slow to rapid, prone to warp with some checking. Collapse occurs in thick stock. Quartersawing is suggested to minimize degrade. Kiln schedule T2-D4 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T2-D3 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.2%; tangential 10.8%; volumetric 13.0%.

Working Properties: The wood is easily worked by either hand or machine tools but raised and woolly grain are common defects; takes glue, paint, and nails well and polishes to a good finish. The wood has a tendency to blunt cutting edges.

Durability: Variable in decay resistance, generally reported to be susceptible to attack by fungi as well as insects.

Preservation: Both heartwood and sapwood are readily impregnated with preservatives.

Uses: Carpentry, utility plywood, furniture components, interior trim, millwork. The wood is suggested as a substitute for Cedrela.

Additional Reading (25), (44), (46), (74)

Vouacapoua americana

Wacapou Acapu

Family: Leguminosae

Other Common Names: Bruinhart (Surinam), Sarabebeballi (Guyana), Wacapou (French Guiana), Acapu (Brazil).

Distribution: Surinam, French Guiana, and the State of Para in Brazil. Occupies noninundated lands in upland forests.

The Tree

A canopy tree with small buttresses and usually a somewhat fluted lower trunk; boles clear to 50 to 75 ft; mostly not more than 24 in. in diameter but at times reaching 36 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood dark brown or reddish brown, deepening upon exposure, figured with fine parenchyma lines; sharply demarcated from the nearly white sapwood. Luster medium to rather low; texture uniformly coarse; grain fairly straight to irregular; dry wood has no distinctive odor or taste. Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.79; air-dry density 59 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)

Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing 
                                                                  strength 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                         Psi              1,000 psi                 Psi   

Green (73) 15,850 2,620 9,170 12% 21,640 2,530 11,480

Janka side hardness for green material 1,610 lb, 1,730 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material 203 in.-lb (5/8-in. specimen).

Drying and Shrinkage: Moderately difficult to dry with slight warping in the form of cup and twist and slight checking. A modified T7-B3 schedule is used in Surinam for 4/4 stock. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 4.9%; tangential 6.9%; volumetric 13.0%.

Working Properties: Moderately difficult to work because of density; machines to smooth surfaces, but there is some rough and torn grain in boring and mortising. Takes glue well.

Durability: Very durable in resistance to attack by a brown-rot and white-rot fungus, not attacked by dry-wood termites or other insects. Reports on resistance to marine borers are variable; good resistance is noted in Panama waters.

Preservation: Heartwood is highly resistant to moisture absorption and is probably not treatable.

Uses: Heavy construction, flooring (strip and parquet), interior trim, furniture, cabinetwork, paneling, railroad crossties.

Additional Reading (56), (72), (73)

Zanthoxylum flavum syn. Fagara flava

West Indian Satinwood

Family: Rutaceae

Other Common Names: Espinillo (Dominican Republic), Yellow sanders (Jamaica), Noyer, Bois noyer (Guadeloupe).

Distribution: Lower Florida Keys, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Lesser Antilles from Anguilla to St. Lucia.

The Tree

Sometimes 40 ft high with a trunk diameter up to 20 in.

The Wood

General Characteristics: Heartwood is a creamy or golden yellow darkening with exposure; not clearly differentiated from the whitish to light yellow sapwood. Luster high; texture fine and even; grain interlocked or irregular often with roey or mottle figure; when freshly worked has a characteristic scent of coconut. Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.73; air-dry density 56 pcf.

Mechanical Properties: No data available.

Drying and Shrinkage: A closely related species in Surinam is reported to season well without difficulty; otherwise no data available on drying and shrinkage.

Working Properties: Has a moderate blunting effect on cutting edges; wood tends to ride on cutters in planing; an excellent turnery wood; takes a fine polish; dust produced in machinery operations may cause dermatitis.

Durability: The wood is reported as nondurable, but is resistant to dry-wood termites.

Preservation: No data available.

Uses: Cabinetmaking, fine furniture, inlays, turnery, fancy veneers, specialty items (hand mirrors and hairbrushes).

Additional Reading (22), (43), (56)